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75 Cards in this Set

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DNA Naked Virus'
Adenovirus
Papillomavirus - HPV
DNA Enveloped Virus'
Herpesvirus - HSV-1 & HSV-2
Hepatitis B
Smallpox
RNA Naked Virus
Rhinovirus-common cold
Rotavirus-gastroenteritis in children
Hep a and e are the twins
Hepatitis A-primarily in children
Norwalk Virus-gastroenteritis in adults
Hepatitis E-usually infects adults
RNA Enveloped Virus' (require direct contact for transmission)
Respiratory Virus'-Flu A and B, parainfluenza, RSV
Measles, Mumps and Rubella-Childhood virus', pregnancy
Rabies-Fatal encphalitis
Hepatitis C-High % chronic carriers
HTLV-Leukemia in adults
HIV-Aids
Hepatitis
Is inflammation of the liver, depositing biliruben in the liver.
All Hep viruses create a yellowing of the eye and skin, Jaundice
Hep A
Typical enterovirus, RNA naked virus, replicates in the intestine, mouth and throat.
Prevention-Vaccine
US very rare
After primary infection, virus spreads through blood reaching the liver-2ndary infection
Hep A
Fecal/Oral route of transmission
Children are the most frequently affected in developing countries.
Causes mild liver damage and heals in two to three wks.
No Chronic infections with Hep A
Hep B
DNA DBL Strand
Enveloped Virus
Cycle is very unique in that it has reverse transcriptase
Hep B
Transmission by direct and indirect contact
Enveloped which is more sensitive to the environment
Vaccine has reduced the rates of liver cancer
Some chronic will clear infection, some will develop Cirhosis, liver failure or cancer
Hep B
Treatment Alpha interferon which prevents replication
Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase-can use HIV drugs
Inhiitors of viral DNA transcriptase- HIV drugs
Hep B
Vaccine-for health professionals, rransfusions, dialysis, freqent std's and iv drug users.
Hep B Surface protein - 3 doses spaced by 2 months each
Hep C
The bad guy of the heps
Single strand RNA enveloped virus
Hyper-variable genome-cannot develope a vaccine as the cycle is uncertain and cannot be grown in the lab
Hep C
Transmission - Blood 75%
Sexual transmission
Most prevalent blood born pathogen in the US infecting 1-2% of population
75% of infected will become chronic carriers
10% develope chirrosis of the liver
The increase need of liver transplants is due to hepc
Hep C
Treatment - Alpha interferon infections and reverse transcriptase inhibitors
Eliminate alcohol consumption
There is no vaccine
Blood contact-iv drug users
May take 10-30 yrs for liver failure
Hep D
RNA enveloped virus
D needs B to develope
Transmission-blood, sexual, birth
No specific treatment
Hep E
RNA naked virus
Major casue of enteric transmitted Hepatitis in Asia
Mostly in developing countries like Hep A
Treatment-vaccine and avoid contaminated water and food with virus in the feces.
Virus', Viroids and Prions
Not living agents
Much smaller than bacteria
Virus' require a host
Capsid
protein coat
Nucleocapsid
protein coat plus genetic material
Naked Viruses
Nucleocapsid is the virus
Enveloped Viruses
Nucleocapsid is covered by a lipid membrane
Virus Lysogenic cycle
Virus enters the cell
Integrates to the host genome and stays latent
Latency is roken and the virus switches to the lytic mode.
The host cell ruptures after a few cycles of replication
Viral particles are released and infect new cells.
Virus Lytic Cycle
Virus enters the cell, hijacks the host machinery and immediately initiates replication
The host cell ruptures after a few cycles of replication
Viral particles are released and infect new cells
Enteric Virus
Generally transmitted via fecal-oral route
Often cause gastoenteritis
Respiratory viruses
Usually inhaled via infected respiratory droples
Generally remain localized in respiratroy tract
Zoonotic Viruses
Transmitted from animal to human via animal vector
Sexually transmitted Virus
Can cause lesions on genitalia or cause systemic infection
Noravirus
Is a naked virus that lives in water and has infected cruise ships
Acute
Common cold
Replicate and will leave
Persistent
The ones that stay with you for a very long time.
Herpes is yours to keep
Longterm relationships most commonly the entire life of the host
Acute infections
usually of short duration
host may develop long-lasting immunity
Result in productive infections
i.e. measles virus disappears after the disease ends
Animal Virus Replication
Acute Infections
Attachment
Entry
Targeting
Uncoating
Exposing nucleic acid opens capsid hijacks cell machinery
Replication & Synthesis
Maturation
Cell lysis
Spreading - within the host
Shedding & Transmission
Persistent Infections
yours to keep
3 diff forms
latent
chronic
slow
Persistent Infections
Attachment
Entry
Targeting
Uncoating - exposing nucleic acid
Lytic Cycle
Replication and Synthesis
Maturation
Viral release
Spreading - within host
shedding and transmission
Lysogenic Cycle
Latency estalished
Reactivation
Replication and Synthesis
Maturation
Viral release
Spreading within host
Shedding and transmission
Latent Infections
Infection is followed by symptomless period, then reactivated
Infectious particles not detected until reactivation
Symptoms of reactivation and initial disease may differ like Herpes simplex viruses 1 and 2
and Chicknpox to shingles (zoster)
Chronic Infections
Infectious virus can be detected at all times
Disease may be present or absent during extendd times or may develop late
Best known example is Hep B and Hep C
Slow Infections
Infectious agent increases count slowly over long period of time
No Significan symptoms apparent during this time
Two groups of infectious agents cause slow infections - retroviruses(HIV) adn Prions
DL strand DNA viruses
are responsible for mos virus-induced tumors in humans
Cancers caused by DNA viruses result from interation of virla genome into hos DNA
Invade the host disrupting the gene creating a non-function gene.
Prions
Proteinaceous infectious agent
linked to a number of fatal human diseases
Cause brain degeneration with sponge like holes
called spongiform encphalopathies
sx appear years after infection
Prions
First discovered in Africa
converts normal protein to a prion protein which is a sick protein killin the brain cells
Viroids
are mainly a disease of coconuts
have no protein coat
Viroid RNA is circular and resistent to nuclease digestion
Virus damage
two sources of damage
1 Lytic cycle destroying cells
2 immune response
DNA enveloped virus
Herpes HSV 1 and HSV 2
Varicella zoster
CMV-cytomegalovirus
Epstein Barr
Herpes 8-Kaposi's sarcoma
Eicosahedrical core surrounded by lipid envelope
Herpes HSV 1 HSV 2
cause latent infection
acute infection-quiescent-acute infection
meanin acute in the lytic cycle
and latent in the lysogenic cycle
HSV 1
Labialis-cold sore
Hides in the trigeminal ganglia of the base of the brain
HSV 2
Hides in the sacral ganglia of the lower back
HSV 2
infects 10-20% of the population and is considered to be an STD
Condoms reduces 30% of infection and most show no sx
HSV 1
80% of population is infected
40% will show recurrence of infection
HSV 1
transmission saliva and cold sores or vesicular rash
HSV 2
transmission thru sexual contact
is on the rise although more prevalent in Asia.
Herpes virus
mechanism of disease
lytic cycle skin-vesicular rash
lysogenic cycle hides in the ganglia closest to the sore
HSV 1 and HSV 2
both cause nenatal herpes
treatment - antiviral-acyclovir -Zovirax
Antivirals
attack the DNA polymerase
HSV 1
cause corneal ulcers and encephalitis in advanced HIV patients.
DNA enveloped virus
Varicell-Zoster
chickenpox - primary
zoster - secondary
transmission repiratory droplets
Varicella - zoster
vaccine of live attenuated virus
CMV
Most common cause of congenital abnormalities in US during the first trimester
Cycle is the same as the HSV
also of the herpes family
hides in the epithelial cells during lysogeny
CMV
is a persistent infection
can be mistaken for the common cold
congenital abnormalities during 1st trimester
infection of the back of eye.
will disappear in 3-5 days
CMV
serious CMV infection abnormalities developed in the brain and heart
Owl eye syndrome and inclusion type -looks like an alien on the slide
DNA enveloped viruses
Infectious mononucleosis
Epstein Barr or aka kissing disease
infects white blood cells
fever, sore throat, anorexia and lethargy
spontaneous recovery in 2-3 wks
may take 6 mo to a year to fully recover
80% of population has had contact with mono
Mononucleosis or kissing disease aka Epstein Barr
a small % will develop integration of virus into genome
HPV-human papillomavirus
naked virus
causes papillomas-warts
genital warts are the most common sexually transmitted disease
skin to skin contact and genital contact
HPV 16/18 inactivate tumor suppressor genes in human cells
Rerovirus
Uses reverse transcriptase to make DNA from RNA
Epidemic
incident and area
sharp increase defined geographic area
Endemic
A predicted value.
every year we have so many flu cases in a specific
Pandemic
detected and documented cases in all continents
HPV
gardasil vaccine
Influenza virus
segmented genome
with 8 diff fragments
2 major molecules are the H and N molecules which identifies the virus
Hemagglutinin - H
has 16 variants finds the sialic acid which we have on our cells
Neuraminidase - N
Has 9 variants
is for budding process of cycle transfers sialic acid to be released from cell
Antigenic shift
two different virus' xchange pieces of DNA creating a new virus
1 they have to be in close proximaty
2 has to be able to infect humans
3 it has to adapt to infect human to human
Rhinovirus
cause of the common cold
grows better in the trachea at 33C
mildly resistant to dtergents and alkali but susceptible to acid
transmission-aerosol droplets and hands
Rhinovirus
Lytic cycle is in the lungs
no vaccine
wash hands and vit c and zinc are helpful
tx the symptoms
Norwalk virus
most common form of food poisoning
oral fecal contamination
lytic cycle in the intestines
Rotavirus
not seen in the US
most common viral gastoenteritis in children in developing countries
need proper sewage and water treatment and hand washing