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53 Cards in this Set

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Adaptive immunity
Body's specific defense against a foreign invader (ability to defend against specific infectious agents)
Antigens (AG)
Substance that provokes an immune response (Antibody Generator)
humoral immunity
carried out by the antibodies that circulate in your blood (b cells and antibodies, extracellular fluids: blood plasma, lymph and mucous, defense is primarily against bacteria, toxins, and viruses located outside of human cell
cellular immunity
specialized cells called T cells
t cells
regulate activation of other immune cells such as macrophage
T cells
will bind to an antigen presented on the outside of an infected cell and releases cytokins >causes other immune cells to perform a specific function
Types of Adaptive immunity
Active, and Passive
Active
T/B cells activated to produce AB
Passive
"ready-made" AB introduced into body
naturally acquired active immunity
antigen exposure through daily life illness (lifelong immunity: chicken pox, measels
naturally acquired passive immunity
transfer of AB from a mother to an infant or in the womb=breastfeeding>short lived immunity
artificially acquired active immunity
vaccination using a prepared antigen
artificially acquired passive immunity
AB"harvested" from an individual exposed to disease, purified and injected into recipient
Antigens
proteins, and large polyscaccharides =m/o components>capsule, cell wall, flagella, and toxins
Antigens
nonmicrobial antigens: pollens, eggwhites, blood cell surface molecules
T cells
will bind to an antigen presented on the outside of an infected cell and releases cytokins >causes other immune cells to perform a specific function
Types of Adaptive immunity
Active, and Passive
Active
T/B cells activated to produce AB
Passive
"ready-made" AB introduced into body
naturally acquired active immunity
antigen exposure through daily life illness (lifelong immunity: chicken pox, measels
Antigenisc determinant (epitope)
specific region on the antigen that the antibody reacts with
Antibodies (immunoglobulins IG)
proteins made in response to an antigen results of antibody-antigen binding=antibodies do not destroy the antigen, just aid in its removal
Antibodies
2 identical antigen binding sites per antibody
Antibody Structure
4 protein Chains, 2 light and 2 heavy
constant and variable region
FC region-if exposed can bind complement
5 classes of AB
GAMED
IgM
1st AB produced in response to initial infection/Pentamer
IgG
increased phagocytosis, neutralize toxins, and viruses/fetus and newborn protection
IgA
secretions (tears, salivia, mucous)(protection of mucosal surface)
IgD
function not known/found on b cells
IgE
Allergic reactions and lysis of parasitic worms
humoral immunity
carried out by AB:
Stem cell>bone marrow>live (bcells)
antibody production
b cells exposed to freely circulating Ag
antibody production
B cell is activated; differentiates into a plasma cell producing antibody against the antigen
Antibody production
memory cells are also formed and remain waiting for the second exposure to that particular antigen
Results of AG-Ab binding
Ab does NOT destroy Ag just assists in removal
Results of AG-Ab binding
aggultination, opsonization, neutralizatoin, complement activation, inflammation, ADCC: antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (invaders too large for phagocytosis) large worms
ADCC
Antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity (invaders too large for phagocytosis (large worms))
Results of AG-AB binding
ab binding to Ag "tags" foreign cells/molecules to be neutralized or destroyed by phagocytosis, active complement, or cytotoxic cells
Immunological Memory
IgM and IgG
Primary Response
IgM is the highest amount after the initial exposure, IgG is present later and in a lower amount
Secondary Response
immune response intensifies on the second exposure to the same antigen (IgG high, IgM low)
The secondary (anamnestic) immune response
provides for immunological "memory" usually lifelong immunity and produced following exposure to an infectious agent
Cell mediated immunity: carried out by T-lymphocytes
Stem cell>thymus>t cell>lymphoid tissue
control INTRA cellular pathogens
T-cells: 2 primary types (based upon differences in cell surface markers and function)
CD4-bearing Tcells: helper TH cells (T helper cells)
HIV targets CD4 bearing T cells
Cytokines
chemicals produced by tH cells that influence the activity of other immune cells
Th1:
usually going to activate cells related to cell mediated immunity (macrophage CD8)
TH2:
produce cytokines associated with allergic reactions or respond to parasitic infections
T cell activation
antigen presenting cells (APC's), MHC (major histocompatibility complex), T Cell activation
Antigen Presenting cells (APC's)
macrophage B cells and dendritic cells-processed antigen displayed on surface and presented to T cell
T cell activation
once antigen displayed on APC surface, T cells can interact and direct immune cells (cytokines)
The two branches of the specific immune system work together
Humoral, cell mediated
humoral: freely circulating pathogens
B cell (APC) binds to an AG
T helper cell realeased cytokines so B cell will begin to produce AB
B cells also differentiated into memory cells for 2nd encounter
Cell Mediated (intracellular pathogens)
Ag expressed on cell surface of an APC
T helper cells binds MHC -AG complex
T helper cell released cytokines to cause tc to differentiate and plasma cells and macrophage activated
tc lyses infected cell using enzyme perforin