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60 Cards in this Set

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Antibiogram

a report indicating that susceptibility of clinically isolated microorganisms to the antibiotics in current use

Antibiotic

A chemical substance produced by a microorganism that kills or inhibits the growth of another microorganism

Antimicrobial drug resistance

the acquired ability of a microorganism to resist the effects of an antimicrobial agent to which it is normally susceptible

Beta-lactam antibiotic

penicillin or a related antibiotic that contains the four-membered heterocyclic Beta-lactam ring

broad-spectrum antibiotic

an antibiotic that acts on both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria

Enzyme immunoassay (EIA)

A test that uses antibodies linked to enzymes to detect antigens or antibodies in body fluids

Fluorescent antibody

an antibody molecule covalently modified with a fluorescent dye tha tmakes the antibody visible under fluorescent light

Fusion inhibitor

- A peptide that blocks the fusion of viral and target cytoplasmic membranes


- Prevents viruses from successfully fusing with the host cell

Growth factor analog

a chemical agent that is related to and blocks the uptake or utilization of a growth factor

Healthcare-associated infection (HAI)

A local or systemic infection acquired by a patient in a health care facility, particularly during a stay in the facility

Immunoblot (Western blot)

The use of labeled antibodies to detect specific proteins after separation by electrophoresis and transfer to a membrane

Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)

The smallest amount of an agent needed to completely inhibit the growth of an organism in vitro

Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)

- Bind directly to reverse transcriptase and inhibits reverse transcription


- a non-nucleoside analog used to inhibit viral reverse transcriptase

Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI)

- Work by inhibiting elongation of the viral nucleic acid chain by a nucleic acid polymerase


- a nucleoside analog used to inhibit viral reverse transcriptase

Penicillin

a class of antibiotics that inhibit bacterial cell wall synthesis, characterized by a Beta-lactam ring

Protease inhibitor

Inhibits the processing of large viral proteins into individual components

Etest

A non-diffusion based technique that employs a performed and predefined gradient of an antimicrobial agent immobilized on a plastic string

Sulfa Drugs

- Discovered by Gerhard Domagk in 1930s;


- widely used growth factor analogs that specifically inhibited the growth of bacteria


- Sulfanilamide is the simplest

Isoniazid

- A growth analog effective only against Mycobacterium


- interferes with synthesis of mycolic acid

Quinolones

- Antibacterial compounds that interfere with DNA gyrase


- Ciprofloxacin is an example

Cephalosporins

- Produced by fungus Cephalosporium


- Same mod of action as the penicillins but broader spectrum of activity


- Important because resistant to enzymes that destroy B-lactam ring


- Commonly used to treat gonorrhea

Aminoglycosides

- Antibiotics that contain amino sugars bonded by glycosidic linkage


- Not commonly used today, but used when other antibiotics fail


- Example is Streptomycin and its relatives

What's the problem with antiviral drugs?

Most antiviral drugs also target host structures resulting in toxicity

Interferons

- Group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of pathogens


- E.g. Virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten their anti-viral defenses

What are 5 reasons that microbes are resistant to certain antibiotics?

1. Enzymatic destruction of the antibiotic


2. Decreased uptake of the antibiotic


3. Pump antibiotics out of the cell


4. Alter the antibiotic's target


5. Circumvent the damage caused

What plasmid contains drug-resistant genes located on it? And when did it originate?

The R plasmid; predates the antibiotic era

What's the problems of use of antibiotics in medicine, veterinary medicine and agriculture?

It selects for the spread of R plasmids

How can we minimize resistance and possible lose resistance to antibiotics?

1. Resistance can be minimized by using antibiotics correctly and only when needed


2. Resistance to a certain antibiotic can be lost if antibiotic is not used for several years

Acute infection

- The disease is at its height


- A short term infection, usually characterized by a dramatic onset

Carrier

Sub-clinically (diseased individuals who show no or mild symptoms) infected individual who may spread the disease

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)

The agency of the US Public Health Service that tracks disease trends, provides disease information to the public and to healthcare professionals, and forms public policy regarding disease prevention and intervention

Chronic infection

A long-term infection

Common-source epidemic

An infection (or intoxication) of a large number of people from a contaminated common source such as food or water

Emerging disease

An infectious disease whose incidence recently increase or whose incidence threatens to increase in the near future

Endemic disease

a disease that is constantly present, usually in low numbers, in a population

Epidemic

When it occurs in a large number of people in a population at the same time

Epidemiology

The study of the occurrence, distribution, and determinants of health and disease in a population

Fomite

An inanimate object that when contaminated with a viable pathogen can transfer the pathogen to a host

Herd immunity

The resistance of a population to infection due to immunity of a high proportion of the group

Host-to-host eidemic

An epidemic resulting from person-to-person contact, characterized by a gradual rise and fall in number of new cases




- There's indirect (vectors and fomites), and direct

Incidence

The number of new disease cases reported in a population in a given time period

Isolation

In the context of infectious disease, the separation of persons who have an infectious disease from those who are healthy

Morbidity

The incidence of disease in a population, including fatal and nonfatal diseases

Mortality

The incidence of death in a population

Outbreak

The occurrence of a large number of cases of a disease in a short period of time

Pandemic

A worldwide epidemic

Prevelence

The total number of new and existing disease cases reported in a population in a given time period

Public health

The health of the population as a whole

Quarantne

The separation and restriction of well persons who may have been exposed to an infectious disease to see if they develop disease




- Restricts the movement of an individual with an active infection

Reemerging disease

An infectious disease previously under control but that produces a new epidemic

Reservoir

A source of infectious agents from which susceptible individuals may be infected




E.G. Soil is a reservoir for Clostridium tetani, the cause of tetanus

Surveillance

The observation, recognition, and reporting of diseases as they occur

Vector

A living agent that transfers a pathogen

Vehile

A nonliving source o pathogens that transmits the pathogens to large numbers of individuals; common vehicles are food and water

Virulence

The relative ability of a pathogen to cause disease

Zoonosis

Any disease that occurs primarily in animals but can be transmitted to humans

Incubation period

The time between infection and onset of symptoms

Convalescent period

Patient regains strength and returns to normal

Pathogen eradiction

The goal is to remove all of a pathogen from any reservoir


(e.g., smallpox, polio, and potentially rabies, leprosy, and others)

What are 7 emergence factors for infectious diseases?

1. Human demographics and behavior (Urbanization)




2. Technology and industry (Healthcare-associated infection)




3. Economic development and land use (Changes in recreational and housing patterns)




4. International travel and commerce (Shipment of animals across international boundaries)




5. Pathogen adaptation and change (RNA virus mutations)




6. Breakdown of public health (Inadequate immunization)




7. Abnormal natural occurrences (Climate change, e.g. expanding rodent population)