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96 Cards in this Set

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You are wondering what the specific causative agent of polio is so you do a search on PubMed on a hospital's medical library. What is the causative agent for polio?




Enterovirus picornaviridae


Streptococcus pneumoniae


Naegleria fowleri


Poliovirus intoxicum

Enterovirus picornaviridae

Which of the following diseases does not require an infection to cause symptoms?




Poliomyelitis


Botulism


Listeriosis


Cryptococcosis

Botulism

Amanda is a 20-year-old college student who lives on campus. Her roommate brought her into your emergency room, because Amanda is not acting like herself. She was previously healthy, very involved in campus politics, and a 4.0 student. About 2 weeks ago, she started not feeling well. She had bad nasal congestion, and was diagnosed with a sinus infection. However, she decided against taking antibiotics because she did not believe they were good for her. She started getting very high fevers, which Amanda told her roommate were good because they were killing the infection. Yesterday, she started complaining of a stiff neck, and today she seems especially lethargic with a fever of 105. Her roommate was scared, so she forced her into her car and has driven her to your ICU.What is the most likely diagnosis for Amanda?




prolonged sinus infection


meningitis


tumor of the cervical spine


necrotizing encephalitis

meningitis

Drugs used to treat encephalitis must ________.




enter the lymphatic system


kill gram-positive cocci


be lipid soluble


inhibit acetylcholine

be lipid soluble

Which of these statements is true concerning foodborne botulism in older children and adults?




Disease usually results from consuming C. botulinum spores in improperly canned foods. These spores germinate and produce toxin within the intestine.




Disease results from toxin produced by vegetative C. botulinum organisms when contaminated foods sit at room temperature between preparation and consumption.




Disease results when ingested C. botulinum spores germinate in the intestine and invade the bloodstream, causing septicemia.




Disease results from consuming vegetative C. botulinum organisms that invade peripheral neurons.




Disease results from consuming botulism toxin in improperly preserved foods.

Disease results from consuming botulism toxin in improperly preserved foods.

In September 2008, a previously healthy 25-year-old man was admitted with a 24-hour history of fever, vomiting, and neck rigidity. CSF analysis was performed. Test results were negative for bacteria, and wet mount slide preparation of CSF showed motile amebic trophozoites. Despite therapy with intravenous amphotericin B, oral fluconazole, and rifampin, his condition deteriorated, and he died 14 days after admission. Which of the following was most likely the cause of his death?




Naegleria fowleri


Clostridium botulium


Streptococcus pyogenes


Francisella tularensis

Naegleria fowleri

A discovery channel journalist traveled to Papua New Guinea to film a documentary on a small tribe. His filming took 1 year to complete and while there he immersed himself in the tribal culture and took part in hunting and cooking as well as wedding and funeral rituals. Upon his return he began to feel uncoordinated and experienced a loss of appetite. A CAT scan revealed spongiform encephalopathy. What disease is the journalist suffering from?




Botulism


Tetanus


West Nile


Kuru

Kuru

A postmortem examination of a brain shows sponge-like degeneration. This is most likely a case of ________.




Poliomyelitis


Rabies


Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease


arboviral encephalitis

Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

The normal biota of the CNS consists of:




Neisseria meningitidis.


herpes simplex I.


herpes simplex II.


Streptococcus agalactiae.


The CNS has no normal biota.

The CNS has no normal biota.

Which of the following is MISMATCHED?




Polio; fecal-oral transmission




Rabies; transmitted by animal bite




Cryptococcus neoformans; associated with chicken and pigeon droppings




Sleeping sickness; transmitted by Tsetse fly




West Nile; transmitted by ticks

West Nile; transmitted by ticks

The nervous system performs three important functions. Which of the following is NOT one of those functions?




A)sensory


B)circulation


C)integrative


D)motor

B)circulation

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is




A)found only in the brain.


B)a neurotransmitter.


C)nutritional and cushioning.


D)contained within the dendrites.

C)nutritional and cushioning.

Meningitis is an infection and inflammation of




A)the grey matter of the brain and associated dendrites.


B)the membranes around the brain.


C)spinal nerves.


D)cranial nerves.

B)the membranes around the brain. (meninges)

Typical signs and symptoms of meningitis include all of these EXCEPT




A)headache.


B)painful or stiff neck.


C)fever.


D)RBCs in CSF.

D)RBCs in CSF.

Neisseria meningitidis ("the meningococcus")




A)are Gram positive cocci.


B)is associated with epidemic forms of meningitis.


C)has no capsule.


D)is a minor cause of meningitis.

B)is associated with epidemic forms of meningitis.

Streptococcus pneumoniae ("the pneumococcus")




A)causes petechiae in the extremities.


B)has no effective vaccine.


C)is the most frequent cause of community-acquired meningitis.


D)is a Gram negative diplococcus.

C)is the most frequent cause of community-acquired meningitis.

Pregnant women are cautioned not to eat soft, unpasteurized cheeses or meats from delicatessens due to this organism, which can cause meningitis, encephalitis, and septicemia in fetuses and neonates, though it causes little problem in immunocompetent adults.




A)Listeria monocytogenes


B)Cryptococcus neoformans


C)Streptococcus pneumoniae


D)Haemophilus influenza

A)Listeria monocytogenes

Naegleria fowleri can cause amoebic meningoencephalitis and




A)is very common.


B)invades broken skin and the conjunctiva of the eye.


C)has a long course of infection.


D)is of special concern to people with traumatic eye injuries.

A)is very common.

Postinfection encephalitis (PIE) is a condition




A)resulting from direct viral invasion.


B)resulting from previous infection with measles and other childhood rash diseases.


C)occurring frequently after immunization with live attenuated vaccines.


D)occurring frequently after immunization with sub-unit vaccine.

B)resulting from previous infection with measles and other childhood rash diseases.

Toxoplasma gondii, a flagellated parasite, is common. What is it's primary reservoir and host?




A)humans


B)insects


C)birds


D)cats

D)cats

Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE)




A)is called a "fast virus infection."


B)occurs shortly after mumps infections.


C)is caused by indirect viral invasion of skeletal tissue.


D)currently has no treatment and no prevention.

D)currently has no treatment and no prevention.

Prions are


A)submicroscopic bacteria.


B)viruses.


C)proteinaceous infectious particles.


D)protozoan parasites.

C)proteinaceous infectious particles.

Creutzfeldt-Jacob Disease (CJD) is found in




A)sheep.


B)cattle.


C)minks.


D)humans.

D)humans.

Prions cause diseases known collectively as




A)prion-associated encephalitis.


B)spongy encephalitis.


C)transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.


D)non-viral encephalopathies.

C)transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

This disease is generally fatal once symptoms have begun. Treatment must begin immediately after exposure to prevent the course of infection.


A)CJD


B)West Nile Virus


C)toxoplasmosis


D)rabies

D)rabies

Poliovirus has been around for centuries with only minor effects. Why did it suddenly display as the more serious infantile paralysis in the 1900s?




A)It became neurotropic.


B)Vaccination programs for it began.


C)increased public sanitation


D)industrial pollution

C)increased public sanitation

Rabies can manifest in three forms:




A)viral, bacterial, and aseptic.


B)furious, hydrophobic, and dumb.


C)infective, inhaled, and ingested.


D)none of the above.

B)furious, hydrophobic, and dumb.

There are three major forms of botulism. Which of the following is not one of the three major forms?


A)food-borne


B)infant


C)inhalation


D)wound

C)inhalation

Clostridium species tend to


A)form endospores.


B)prefer aerobic conditions.


C)be found in hospitals.


D)do damage because of endotoxins.

A)form endospores.

Trypanosoma brucei, the cause of sleeping sickness, is able to avoid immune response by




A)capsule glycoproteins.


B)hiding in body cells.


C)living in an alternate host.


D)antigenic shifting.

D)antigenic shifting.

All of the following can usually be prevented by use of a vaccine EXCEPT for




A)Neisseria meningitidis.


B)Streptococcus pneumoniae.


C)Haemophilus influenza.


D)Listeria monocytogenes.

D)Listeria monocytogenes.

Subacute encephalitis symptoms




A)occur primarily in neonates.


B)take longer to show and are less striking.


C)result 1-2 weeks after infection with measles or other childhood rash diseases.


D)happen when a virus is reactivated from a dormant state.

B)take longer to show and are less striking.

What are the structures that make up the brain and spinal cord?

neurons

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides _____1____, liquid ___2_____ and is _____3______.

1. nutrition


2. liquid cushion


3. sterile



The brain and spinal cord are part of the ____1___ nervous system. Where everything else is in the ___2_____ nervous system .

1. Central


2. Peripheral



The __________ nervous system consists of the cranial and spinal nerves.

Peripheral

_________ receive and transmit nerve signals

nerves

_______ and __________ transmit signals

synapse


neurotransmitters

The blood brain barrier separates the _______ and ______.

blood


CSF

The blood-brain barrier has tight _____1_____. Small ___2___ __3____ molecules that diffuse throught. __4_____ __5____ drugs: Chloramphenocol. Inflammation causes increased _______6_______.

1- junctions


2/3 -non polar


4/5- lipid soluble


6- permeability

Microglia are ______ cells that travel around in the brain and they look for bad thingsand clear up any excess cellular pieces and parts that shouldn’t be there.

immune

Meningitis is inflammation of ____________.

meninges

Encephalitis is inflammation of the ________

brain

Meningoencephalitis is inflammation of __________ and __________

meninges and brain

Common symptoms of meningitis is Fever,_____1______ , stiff neck. Followed by ____2____ and vomiting. Extreme sensitivity to ____3_____. It can sometimes cause a ___4___.

1. headache


2. nausea


3. light


4. rash



Meningitis may progress to ____1______ and ___2____.

convulsions


coma

How is meningitis diagnosed?

Increased lymphocytes in CSF


Gram stain

Meningitis is treated with ________ spectrum antibiotics.

broad spectrum

Meningitis is treated with what two antibiotics?

Cephalosporins


Vancomysin

What can cause meningitis?

Bacteria


fungus


virus

What bacteria's cause meningitis?

•Neisseria meningitidis


•Streptococcus pneumoniae


•Haemophilus influenzae


•Listeria monocytogenes

What fungus can cause meningitis?

Cryptococcus neoformans

What viruses can cause meningitis?

Viral meningitis

Neisseria meningitidis is also known as

meningococcus

Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) causes the most serious forms of _______ meningitis

acute

Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus)is a gram (+/-), diplo______

negative


cocci

Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus ) virulence factors include: ___1____ that helps evade phagocytes and __2__ ____3_____.

1. capsule


2/3. igA protease



in Neisseria meningitidsi meningococcus) 3-30% of people are carriers in their ________ and _________. and 50% of people who work in institutional settings are carriers.

nose


throat

How is Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus ) transmitted?

families and facilities

Because Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) produces igA protease, it can pass the _______ _______.

mucus membrane

Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) can cause one to ______________. and develop petechiae (red/purpose spots due to blood in the skin)

hemorrhage

Common signs and symptoms of Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) are :




sudden onset of disease, soar __1_____, fever of ___2___(temp), chills, delirium, widespread ___3____ under the skin, generalized intravascular ____4____, shock; ___5____, cardiac failure.

1. Throat


2. 104


3. bleeding


4. clotting


5. coma



Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) has a _____% mortality rate

15

people who have Neisseria meningitidis (meningococcus) often die within _____ to ______ hours if left untreated

9-12

Streptococcus pneumoniae can cause what bacterial infection in the brain?

Pneumococcal meningitis

Pneumococcal meningitis is gram (+/-) and is a normal biota of the _______2______.


____3___% of the population are carriers.

1. positive


2. nasopharynx


3. 70%



Pneumococcal meningitis have virulence factors such as: ___1_____ that prevent phagocytosis, __2__-hemolysin, H202 which produce catalase and induces brain cell ______3______.

1. capsule


2. alpha


3. apoptosis



Pneumococcal meningitis penetrates the ______1_______ musoca and enters the _____2_____ where it gains access to the _____3_______.

1. respiratory


2. bloodsteam


3. meninges



Pneumococcal meningiti (streptococcus pneumoniae) is typically transmitted to ________

children between 1-48 months

The mortality rate for Pneumococcal meningiti is _____% in children and ______% in elderly

30


80

Haemophilusinfluenzae can causes _____________ in the brain.

meningitis

Haemophilusinfluenzae is a gram (+/-), rod and is a noral biota of the _________.

negative


throat

Haemophilusinfluenzae has virulence factors that include: ____________ and antigen type _____.

capsule


B

Haemophilusinfluenzae enters the _________ where is then reaches the _________.

bloodstream


meninges

Haemophilusinfluenzae is transmitted typically to ____________.

children (6-48 months)

What is the mortality rate for Haemophilusinfluenzae?

>6% because of Hib vaccine

Hib vaccine is to help prevent

Haemophilusinfluenzae type B

Listeria monocytogenes can cause ___________.

meningitis

Listeriamonocytogenes is Gram (+/-) and is _______2______ because it has 1-4 flagella.

positive


pleomorphic

Common Listeriamonocytogenes signs and symptoms in immunocompetent people are ______1______ and _____2____.

Mild, subclinical

Common Listeria monocytogenes signs and symptoms in immunocompromised people are: affects the brain, ____1_____, and causes _____2_______. Death rate is __3___%

1. meninges


2. septicemia


3. 20



Common Listeria monocytogenes signs and symptoms in pregnant women include: _____1_______ infections, premature ____2_______ and ____3____.

1. intrauterine


2. abortion


3. death

Listeria monocytogenes is not _____1______. (intra or extra cellular 2) pathogen and it reproduces in ____3_______.

1. fastidious


2. intracellular


3. phagocytes



Listeria monocytogenes transmission is __________.

foodborne (soil and water)

Listeria monocytogenes can grow at _______ degrees Celsius .

4

Listeria monocytogenes have flagella that coats itself with ______________ and shoots across to the next cell.

cytoskeleton

Cryptococcusneoformans is a __1______ that causes _____2_______.

1.Fungus


2.meningitis

Cryptococcus neoformans is __1___ shaped and has a large ____2_____.

1. ovoid


2. capsule



Cryptococcus neoformans is a _______ form of meningitis

chronic

Cryptococcus neoformans has a ____1_____ onset of symptoms and is commonly found in _______2_________ people.

1.gradual


2. immunocompromised

Cryptococcus neoformans is transmitted from ____1____ and ___2____ droppings via ____3_____.

1. pigeon


2. chicken


3. inhalation



Viral meningitis is a type of _________ meningitis; no bacteria or fungi in CSF

aseptic

Viral meningitis is caused by what virus?

Enterovirus

The common signs and symptoms of viral meningitis is are generally ____1___ than bacteria or fungal meningitis. Usually resolved within ___2___ weeks. Mortality rate is __3___%

1. milder


2. 2


3. less than 1%



Neonatal meningitis is almost always transmitted by the _____1_______. In ____2___ or during passage through the ____3____ ____4____.

1. mother


2. utero


3/4. birth canal



Neonatal meningitis is caused by what etiological agents?

Streptococcus agalactiae




Escherichia coli K1(Brain damage, 20% mortality rate)




Listeria monocytogenes