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26 Cards in this Set

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Antigen


Immunogen


Allergen


Ag

Any substance that can cause antibody formation


can be


A microbe, foreign material, or self



Usually proteins or large polysaccharides

Antibody


Immunoglubulin


Ab


Ig

protein made in response to an antigen




recognize and bind to Ag

Antigen Antibody reaction

Ab will attach to the Ag at a specific site Valence: # of Ags that will attach to Ab

Active


Body makes own Ab


How are we exposed to Ag



Natural active


come across the antigen naturally : cold virus








Artificial active


Ag introduced artificially (vaccine)


MMR


DPT or DTaP


HIB

Passive


Ab from animal/human


How are we exposed to Ag

Natural passive


Ab goes from mother to infant


Placental or colostrum





Artificial passive


Ab recieved via injection


Examples: antitoxin (antiserum) or Rhogan (anti Rh antisera)

Hemolytic disease of newborn


HDN

Rh neg mother and Rh pos father could produce antibodies against Rh blood

Serum electrophiresis: Gamma


Globulin portion of serum

A

IgA


Gamma A


immuno globulin a


Secretory Ab

MW 70,000 or 400,000 Daltons (2 mw)


found in: mucous, saliva, tears, colostrum and blood




1st and 3rd line of defense


13% of total WBC but % higher in total secretions of the body


monomer in blood


dimer in secretions

IgD


Gama D

MW 180,000 daltons


internal marker on B lymphocytes




0.2% of total WBC


monomer

IgE


Gama E

Allergen Ab


MW 200,000 Daltons (single Y)


involved in hypersensitivity or allergic rxns


0.002% of total Ab


monomer


least abundant

IgM


Gamma

circulatory Ab


MW 900,000 Daltons largest Ab


1st Ab to arrive in response to initial exposure of Antigen


short lived


doesn't cross fetal-placental membrane


6% of total Ab


pentamer

Antibody memory


Anamnestic response

Initial 4-7 days IgM


10-17 days IgG (triggers compliment)



Secondary: 2-7 IgG with greater magnitude (higher tider)

Antibody structure

A

Antibody structure of a monomer

4 polypeptide chains:


2 heavy 2 light





T cells and cell immunity

Produced by stem cell in red bone marrow


Mature in thymus



Make up-65% of total"r-- lymphocytes Responds to Ags and F\g. 17.1 F.- results in the formation of certain subsets of T Secrete cytokines: r A 'C q


Bdjdjdjjd

Types of T cells

T helper cells


Pg 8

Regulator T cells

Suppressor


CD8 cell


Suppress other T cells

Cytotoxic cells

Tc a CD8


Recognize and kill target ce\\s, "non-self"or hijacked ce\\S, tumor cells and transplanted foreign tissue


· Programmed ce\\death: Apoptosit

Cytokines

Chemical messengers of immune ce\\S Also known as: Function: Attract macrophages, protect · otect against viral\nfecuons, toxic to tumor cells, Increase Ab producuon



Pg9

B cells and humoral immunity

Produced by stem cells mature in red bone marrow



Named for bursa of fabricius (chicken GI )


djkdke pg9

B cells

Carry-0ld"Immunoglobulins (IgD or M) on surface. When they recogn\ze an hg, the B ce\\ls acuvated w\th the ass\stance of TH ce\\S to produce, 1. Memory Ce\\S 2, Plasma Ce\\S'.

Results of anti

A

Types of mechanism (antibody...)

Agglutination reduce # of microbes



Pg11

IgG


Gama G

circulatory Ab


MW 160,000 daltrons


protects against microbes, triggers complement and incr phagocytosis


crosses fetal-placental membrane


80% of total Ab most abundant


monomer

Antibody structure of a monomer


Arms of Y:

fab region(fragment of Ag binding)Region where Ag binds


Contains variable amino acid sequence Specific for Ag

Antibody structure of a monomer


Stem of Y

: Fc region (fragment of cell binding)




Contains amino acid sequencebinds to, cells , proteins, or compliment