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76 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is job design
The process of defining how work will be performed and what tasks will be required in a given job
What is motivation
This is a function of
direction, intensity, and persistence
What is self-actualization
This “need” is at the top of Maslow’s need hierarchy
What are process theories
These motivation theories focus on how behavioral change occurs
What is identity
In Job Characteristics Theory, the degree to which a job results in a whole, identifiable piece of work
What is reinforcement theory
This theory states that behavior is entirely a function of its consequences
What is expectancy theory
This theory states that motivation is high when individuals believe effort will lead to performance and performance will lead to valued outcomes
What is process engineering
Eliminating a redundant job is an example of this mechanistic approach to job design
What are goals
These work best to motivate people when they are specific and challenging
What is instrumentality
The belief that performance will lead to outcomes
What are informal groups
You might find one of these types of groups together during lunch
What is the IPO model
This popular but basic model explains how groups achieve outcomes
What are heterogeneous teams
These types of teams perform better on complex tasks
What is surface-level diversity
Demographic differences (age, gender, race) represent this type of “diversity”
What are forming, storming, norming, performing, and adjourning
According to Tuckman, the five stages through which groups develop
What is face-to-face communication
This communication medium is better early on, before a decision has to be reached by a team leader
What is punctuated equilibrium
Gersick (1988) found that teams transition around their halfway point – a process referred to as this
What is a decision task or disjunctive task
This type of task has one correct answer, so group performance depends on the ability of best group member
What is cohesiveness
Small, homogeneous groups tend to have higher levels of this type of group member attraction
What are routines
These process gains/losses save time, but may result in miscoding of novel situations
What are vacancy characteristics
Pay, benefits, job security, and location are all examples of these “characteristics”
What is a noncompensatory strategy
“If it’s not in Florida, forget it” is an example of this decision strategy
What is a transitional matrix
We might use this to determine who is moving up or out of the company
What is lead-the-market pay
Offering 20% more in salary than other similar companies is an example of this personnel policy
What are ways to correct a surplus
Downsizing, pay reduction, demotions, work sharing, early retirement
What is Google
This #1 company to work for provides lunch to all its employees
One study found that this set of companies outperformed a similar set over a 5-year period
Fortunes 100 best companies to work for
What is Human Resource Management
Policies, practices, and systems that influence employee attitudes and performance
What are IPOs (initial public offerings)
A study found that these companies, that moved from private to public ownership, survived longer if they had good HR practices
What are case studies and quantitative studies
These two methods can be used to study the effect of OB/HR on firm performance
Of Maslow’s need hierarchy, Hertzberg’s two factor theory, and goal setting theory – the one that is most supported
Goal Setting Theory
What is Hertzberg’s two-factor theory
This theory differentiates between “hygiene factors” and “motivators”
What is negative reinforcement
Removing an undesirable consequence following a desired behavior
What is significance
In Job Characteristics Theory, the degree to which the job affects the lives of other people
What is responsibility for work
According to Job Characteristics Theory, this critical psychological state is the result of autonomy
What is equity theory
According to this theory, motivation is high when people’s outcome/input ratios are similar
What is expectancy
The belief that effort
leads to performance
What is job enlargement
According to Job Characteristics theory, increasing the number of tasks a worker performs
What is meaningfulness of work
Variety, identity, and significance all combine to affect this critical psychological state
What is variable-ratio reinforcement schedule
Slot machines use this type of reinforcement schedule – no wonder they’re so addicting
What are norms
These informal rules and expectations that groups establish regulate group member behavior
What is groupthink
Encouraging devil’s advocates helps to avoid this process loss
What is an additive task
An assembly line is an example of this type of group task
What is voice behavior
Small groups and high self-esteem are positively related to this type of individual behavior in groups
What is social loafing
This process loss is more likely in larger teams with no measures of individual effort
What is demand forecasting
Used to answer, “How much labor will we need?”
What are employee referrals
This source of recruitment usually results in good hires – but beware, your reputation is on the line
What is person-organization fit
The extent to which an applicant’s and organization’s values match
What is outsourcing or offshoring
Moving call-centers to India is an example of this
What is a realistic job preview
This type of recruiter interview would have sent Tom Cruise’s character running in The Firm
What is benchmarking
This method of demand forecasting uses other, similar businesses as comparisons
According to one study, this labor surplus correction method works best when it is paired with a major business change
What is image advertising
A tobacco company publicizing charitable donations is an example of this personnel policy
This vacancy characteristic is not rated as important, but it really is when it comes to making a decision
What is a compensatory strategy
Comparing the strengths and weaknesses of different jobs represents this type of decision strategy
What are homogenous teams
These types of teams peform best when quick decisions need to be made
What is task conflict
This type of conflict can be beneficial for teams, especially on non-routine activities
What are disjunctive tasks
Performance on these types of tasks depends on the group member with the highest ability
What is conformity
Groupthink is often the result of this – pressures individuals feel to agree with everyone
Of creativity, decision accuracy, and speed, the performance criterion on which individuals tend to outperform teams
SPEED when individualized
What is one standard deviation
According to the study by Huselid (1995), firms who improved their OB/HR practices by this statistical amount had 7% less turnover, $27,000 more in sales per employee, and $18,000 more in market value per employee
Job Characteristics Theory

What is VISAF and what do they stand for?
Variety - different activities, use different skills

Identity - job results in a whole, identifiable piece of work

Significance - Job affects the lives of other people

Autonomy - Job holder has freedom and discretion (responsibility)

Feedback - The job gives feedback on performance
Job Characteristics Theory

What are the three "critical psychological states" that the 5 core characteristics create?
Meaningfulness of work - belief that the job has a meaningful outcome (variety, identity, significance)

Responsibility for work - belief that worker controls outcome (Autonomy)

Knowledge of Results - worker is aware of job outcome (Feedback)
What is job rotation?
Providing employees with different tasks or jobs
What is Job enrichment?
Empowering employees to make descisions
What is positive reinforcement?
Desirable consequence follows a certain behavior (ex. employee bonus)
Punishment in the reinforcement theory does what?
Gives something bad or takes away something good
What is continuous reinforcement?
A response is reinforced each time it is performed
What is a Fixed-Interval Reinforcement Schedule?
Reinforcement after a fixed amount of time (example every 20 minutes)
What is a Variable-Interval Reinforcement Schedule?
The period of time between reinforcement varies
What is a fixed-ratio reinforcement schedule
A certain number of responses must occur before reward. (example after every 4 bikes completed, we get a $10 bonus)
What is Valence?
The anticipated value of outcomes. ( ex. pay, promotion, task enjoyment, achievement)
What is the difference between a group and a team?
A group is 2 or more people that interact and depend upon each other for some common objective

A team is a "super group" that has highly defined tasks and roles and requires a high group commitment
Group Inputs
What are group member resources?

What are some Deep-level diversity characteristics?
Personality, Values, Attitudes
What is the "Implicit Favorite?"
The favorite job that deep down you want to get