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46 Cards in this Set

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What is the Carmill Model?

Cardona & Miller = Carmill

distinguishes two cycles: constructive and destructive. Heart of constructive cycle is shared objectives (team mission). Heart of destructive cycle is individual or private objectives. Both cycles found in storming phase.

Why is the storming phase critical for the team?

it's the moment of truth for the team since members need to commit to a specific decision. Must choose between shared objectives and individual objectives.

Prioritize individual goals = destructive

what basic processes does the team's identity influence?

trust building, communication, organization & collaboration

Carmill model and leadership

Leader has to

1) watch for coalitions forming

2) keep order in the process & control emotional aspect of debates

3) stay focused on issues, not personalities or subgroups

Carmill: three types of leader

transactional, transforming, transcendent

Carmill: transcendent leadership

unites around extrinsic, intrinsic and transcendent objecKves – leading to structural cohesion

Carmill: structural cohesion

the most powerful kind of cohesion relies on a deep awareness of one’s ability to contribute to a MISSION through the team experience – shared moKvaKon amongst teammates

Carmill: Transforming leader

unites around extrinsic and intrinsic objectives – leading to emotional cohesion

Carmill: emotional cohesion

a deeper kind of cohesion that relies on the emoKonal reward experienced through accomplishing INTRINSIC objectives like BONDING, esprit de corps, a learning community, or a shared sense of achievement

Carmill: transactional leader

unites around extrinsic objectves – leading to instrumental cohesion

Carmill: instrumental cohesion

the most fragile form of cohesion based on the desire to achieve expected EXTRINSIC rewards like a BONUS or a championship ring or a trophy

Carmill: What strategies can be used in order to avoid failure

1) going back to storming when destructive cycles appear

2) moving forward to another challenge (restart)

3) face total failure to return to constructive action

Notes from Coach K to develop leaders/ strong teams

*adjust leadership to who you have on your team

*know ea team member's personality and make them use their strengths to lead others

*Create an environment where people trust you by "playing the role" or "looking the part"

* accentuate a team member's leadership role by asking for their opinion's first

* build interpersonal connections

* be a friend/ motivator to your star players

Coach K: how to deal with "derailers"

*save them

*counsel them individually

*deal with it one-on-one

Gallo: recommendations for team leaders

* disagreements within a team are healthy and can be beneficial for success

* prevent a disagreement before it happens

* gather your team and establish team norms (keeps team grounded & focused)

* intervene early in disagreements, don't want it to fester ---> hurt feelings, resentment

* set rules for moving forward

* focus on new task

* solution = compromise where both viewpoints are integrated

* give ppl a break if they've been emotionally hurt

* give ppl who feel "unimportant" an important task

Klau: recommendations for leaders

*Leadership all about values: improving the human condition

*Leadership and Service: contributing to a greater cause, brings people together

*Service is at the heart of understanding leadership

*Leaders must be guided by set of values that unite. (MLK and Kennedy)

Corkindale: recommendations for leaders

* cultural awareness: know how to address people

* read material

* culture is at the root of our identity, so any perceived attacks strike at our personality

ex: Tom american: direct calls people out in public

Li asian: feels embarrassed being addressed like this.

Brett: Managing multicultural teams: Barriers

* direct vs indirect communication

* accents/ fluency- people get impatient, non-fluent people don't lead convo.

* attitude toward hierarchy/authority- humble = you don't know what you're talking about

* decision making- how quick? how much analysis?

Brett: Managing multicultural teams: Strategies

* Adaption- acknowledge differences, assume responsibility. Confrontation is not personal. Fusion, use diff approaches to decision making

* Structural intervention- reorganization to decrease interpersonal friction, make smaller working groups

* Managerial intervention- used to set norms

* Exit- last resort, no salvaging the situation

Stages of the Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity







Intercultural sensitivity: denial

Cultural difference only exists because others don’t know any better. I’m right and you are wrong

Intercultural sensitivity: defense

Able to recognize cultural difference and deeply threatened by it. “Others are inferior.”

Intercultural sensitivity: minimization

Differences are real but not significant… People here trivialize difference.

Intercultural sensitivity: acceptance

Differences are real and significant. Not threatened - neutral and challenged by difference.

Intercultural sensitivity: Adaption

Feeling positive about difference. Willing to change and empathize. Some integration of other culture.

Intercultural sensitivity: integration

Certain aspects of the other culture become part of your identity. Able to empathize.

Pentland: dynamics that characterize increased performance on teams

1) energy

2) creativity

3) shared commitment

Pentland: what is the most important indicator of a team's success along with intelligence, skill and substance of discussions?


Pentland: productivity is tied to a team's _________ and _________ outside of formal meetings

energy & engagement

Pentland: Successful teams do these 5 things

1) everyone talks/listens roughly equal

2) members face one another & gestures are energetic

3) members talk to one another

4) carry side convo. within team

5) periodically break, go outside team to bring info back

Pentland: ideal team player

* circulates actively

* engages ppl in short, high energy convo.

* communicates w/ everyone equally

* lets all team members contribute

* comfortable approaching other people

* listen as much/ more than talk

* engaged with whoever they're listening to

* spread ideas

Edmondson: teaming

get work done while figuring out how to do it better. Situations that call for teaming are complex and uncertain, no 2 projects are alike

Edmondson: hardware of teaming

1) Scoping: ID challenge, determine what expertise is needed, outline roles

2) Structuring: list team members & info, makes it easier for partners to coordinate & communicate

3) Sorting: prioritize tasks. Is the work pooled (ea person works on small segment of big project), sequential (req input from someone else), or reciprocal (back & forth)

Edmondson: software of teaming

asks people to get comfortable with new way of working

*emphasis on purpose: why does team exist? brings indiv. together

* build psych. safety: create space where people are expected to speak up & disagree

* embrace failure: learn from mistakes

* put conflict to work: "is this the only way to see the situation?"

Siebdrat: Virtual team pros

* heterogenous knowledge sources

* utilization of cost advantages

* access to diverse skills & experience

* knowledge about diverse markets

* "follow the sun" working

Siebdrat: Virtual team cons

* language differences

* cultural incompatibilities

* difficulties establishing common ground

* fewer synchronous face to face interactions

* good teamwork more difficult to achieve

Siebdrat: what is the key to virtual teams?

focus on task process

socio-emotional strengths are important to boost effectiveness of the team with task processes

Siebdrat: work smoothly with a virtual boss

* create virtual contact

* est. rules of communication

* set clear goals

* get personal

* be generous

* agree to be candid

* tap into technology

Meyer: upgrader vs downgrader

upgrader: "totally unprofessional"

downgrader: "sort of unprofessional"

know your team/audience to solicit the response you want

Meyer: Specific vs Holistic cultures

Specific: Americans, N europeans, anglo-saxons, give detailed, segmented info about what is expected

Holistic: E. Asians, Taiwanese, Japanese, explain the big picture and how pieces slot together

Meyer: Culture map 8 scales

1) communicating: low vs high context

2) evaluating: direct vs indirect (-) feedback

3) persuading: principles vs applications first

4) leading: hierarchal vs egalitarian

5) deciding: consensual vs top-down

6) trusting: task based vs relationship based

7) disagreeing: confrontational vs non-confront.

8) scheduling: linear time vs flexible

Meyer: Rules for handling multicultural situations

* don't underestimate the challenge- develop new techniques

* apply multiple perspectives- learn to look thru multiple lenses

* find the positive in other approaches

* adjust and readjust your position- tweak your own working style to better mesh with work partners

Connolly: Barriers that affect all women

*exclusion from networks & conversations that open doors to further development and promotion

* contributions of women are under-appreciated

* being "tough" is not necessarily a good thing

* assumption that women have small children, can't relocate

* women tend to focus more on bringing people together & get things done rather than be in spotlight

Connolly: Supporting Diversity in Orgs: Practices that make the difference

1) measure diversity & inclusion

2) hold managers accountable

3) support flexible work arrangements

4) recruit/promote drom diverse pools of candidates

5) provide leadership edu

6) sponsor employee resource groups/mentoring programs

7) offer quality role models

8) make the chief diversity officer position count

Connolly: why do CEOs want diverse team?

* company needs benefits of diversity

* personal values: they themselves have been an "outsider" and want to bring in heterogenous mix of ppl

Useem: four essential principles that emerged (Mt everest)

* leaders should be led by the group's needs

* inaction can sometimes be the most difficult-but wisest- action

* if words don't stick, you haven't spoken

* leading upwards can feel wrong when it's right