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70 Cards in this Set

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Macro & Microstructure

- What is Epimysium?
- continuous w/ tendons at end of muscles.
- Surrounds groups muscle fiber bundles called Fasciles (Fasciulus)
Macro & Microstructure

- What is Perimysium?
- CT surrounding muscle fibre groups - fascicles.
Macro & Microstructure

- Endomysium
- surrounds each individual muscle fibre
- encircles and is continuous w/ muscle fibers membrane - Sarcolemma
- surrounds each individual muscle fibre
- encircles and is continuous w/ muscle fibers membrane - Sarcolemma
Macro & Microstructure

- Sarcolemma
- sheath surrounding muscle fiber.
Macro & Microstructure

- what is a motor neuron?
- Nerve cell
Macro & Microstructure

- What is a Neuromuscular Junction?
- junction between Motor Neuron (nerve cell) and muscle fibers it innervates
- aka: motor end plate
- place of connection

Motor Neuron + Inn. Muscle Fibers = NMJ

- each muscle cell has only 1 NMJ
- although 1 motor neuron innervates many Muscle Fibres .
Macro & Microstructure

- What is a Motor Unit
- Motor neuron and muscle fibers it innervates.
- all muscles fibers of a MU contract together when stim by the motor neuron.
Macro & Microstructure

- Sarcoplasm
- cytoplasm of a muscle fiber
- contains contractile components (myofibrils) 
- stored glycogen
- fat
- enzymes,
- organelles; mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic reticulum
- cytoplasm of a muscle fiber
- contains contractile components (myofibrils)
- stored glycogen
- fat
- enzymes,
- organelles; mitochondria, and sarcoplasmic reticulum
Macro & Microstructure

- Myofibrils
- contain contractile proteins, that contract muscle cell
- 2 types of myofilaments: Actin (thin) Myosin (thick)
Macro & Microstructure

- Actin, Myosin, globular head, cross-bridges, sarcomeres
- Myosin filaments are thick filaments inside the sarcomere there have globular heads. 
- Globular heads called cross-bridges protrude from myosin and pull on actin filaments
- Actin filaments are thin filaments (2 strand - dbl helix)
- when mu...
- Myosin filaments are thick filaments inside the sarcomere there have globular heads.
- Globular heads called cross-bridges protrude from myosin and pull on actin filaments
- Actin filaments are thin filaments (2 strand - dbl helix)
- when muscle contraction occurs, myosin globular head pull on actin, pulling actin closer together causing muscle contraction.
Macro & Microstructure

- Action POtential
- electrical nerve impulse,
What are the FITTE principles
- Frequency
- Intensity
- Time
- Type
- Enjoyment
What is an Example of exercise frequency for a:

Novice?
- 2-3x per week
- can be a split (upper/lower/full), or 3 full body, etc)
-
What is an example of exercise frequency for an:

Intermediate exerciser
- 3-4x per wk
- 2-3x per muscle group per wk - split routine
What is an example of exercise frequency for an:

Advanced Exerciser
- 4-6 days per wk
- still 2-3x per week per muscle group - split routine
What is exercise Intensity?
- the load
- and speed / velocity of performance
Provide an example of exercise intensity for a:

NOvice - INtermediate exerciser
- 60-70% of 1RM for 8-12 reps
- approx 11-18 RM
Provide an example of exercise intensity for:

Intermediate - Advanced exerciser
80-100% 1RM
- eg) 1-8 RM

- increase load by 2-10% when individual can perform current workload for 1-2 reps over desired number on 2 consecutive training sessions
Provide examples for intensity velocities for:

- Novice
- Intermediate
- Advanced
- Novice: slow and moderate concentric velocity

- Intermediate: moderate concentric velocity

- Advanced: unintentional slow (controlled pace) to fast concentric velocity
Provide examples of exercise velocities
- Slow velocity: 2s CON - 4s ECC (2:4) - Novice
- Super Slow: 10:10s

- Moderate Velocity: 1-2s:1-2s - intermed/advanced
- Fast velocity: <1s:1s - advanced
What is an example of exercise Time for:

Novice
1-3 sets per exercise
What is an example of exercise time for:

Intermediate - Advanced
- multiple sets w/ systematic variation of Vol & Intensity
Provide an examples of a TYPES of exercises
- Free weight, machine, dynamic / isometric (especially w/ trunk)
Why is ENJOYMENT an important principle in the FITTE principles
- important for the exerciser to stay on track w/ the workouts because they are enjoyable
- provides: variety, indoor/outdoor/games
What are the 5 key areas that ACSM/CSEP guidelines include
- hypertrophy
- power
- endurance
- motor performance
- older adults
Recommendations for sequencing exercises for: novice, intermediate, advanced - strength training
- large muscle groups before small groups
- multi-joint exercises before single joint
- high-intensity exercises before lower-intensity
- rotation of upper and lower body or opposing exercises
Recommendations for Hypertrophy Training for Novice - Intermediate
- 70-85% 1RM for 8-12 reps for 1-3 sets per exercise
- 1-2 min rest
Recommendations for Advanced training for hypertrophy
- 70-100% 1RM be used for 1-12 reps per set for 3-6 sets per exercise in a periodized manner
- usually 6-12 RM
- Rest time should correspond w/ goals of exercise. (eg) 2-3 min rest for intense loading
Muscular Power
- predominantly multi-jt exercises
- 1-3 sets per exercise
- light to moderate loading
- 30-60% 1RM for Upper body
- 0-60% 1RM for lower body
- 3-6 reps, not til failure
- performed in explosive velocity for increasing fast force production
Principles of Progression
- Overload, specificity, and Variation
Progression Principle:

- Progressive Overload
- gradual increase of stress placed upon body during exercise training
- physiological adaptations to an RT program for Novice may occur fast
Progression Principle

- What alterations can be done to increase demands placed on body for Progressive Overload
1) Exercise intensity: absolute or relative resistance/load for exercise may be increase
2) Total reps: performed at current intensity may be increased
3) Repetition speed/tempo: w/ submax loads may be altered
4) Rest periods: shortened for endurance improvements, or lengthened for strength and power training
5) Training volume: total work
Progression Principle

Specificity
- all training adaptations are specific to stimulus applied
- specific physiological adaptations to RT are determined by:

1) muscle actions involved
2) speed of movement
3) range of motion
4) muscle groups trained
5) Energy systems involved
6) intensity and volume of training

- some carryover of training effects
Progression Principle

- Variation or Periodization
- systematic process of altering one of more program variable(s) to allow training stim to remain challenging and effective
- Systematic variation of volume and intensity is most effective for long term progression.
- 2 common variables are volume and intensity
Progression Principle

- Classical Periodization
- classic linear model
- high training vol and low intensity
- as training progresses, vol decreases, and intensity increases
Progression Principle

- Reverse Periodization
- reverse linear periodization model
- inverse of classical model
- Intensity is high, volume low at first
- then intensity lowers, and volume increases
- used for individuals targeting LME (local muscular endurance)
Progression Principle

- Undulating Periodization
- nonlinear model of periodization enables variation in intensity and volume w/in a cycle by rotating diff protocols to train components of neuromuscular performance (eg: strength, power, LME)
- (eg: 3-5RM, 8-10RM, 12-15RM loads may be used in rotation)
Trainable Characteristics

- Muscular Strength
- Muscle fiber CSA (cross-sectional area) is positively related to maximal force production
- arrangement of fibers according to: angle of pennation, muscle length, joint angle, contraction velocity can alter expression of muscular strength
- Force generation is dependent upon MU activation
- MU recruited according to their recruitment threshold - activation of slower (low force producing) MU before faster (high force-producing) MU.
Modifiable Factors
- Neural Control
> # of MU stimulated
> Freq of MU firing
> psychological stress
- Muscle CSA (hypertrophy)
- Preloading
Non-Modifiable Factors
- Variation in tendon insertion
- muscle fiber type
- arrangement of muscle fibers (pennated vs. non-pennated)
- muscle belly length (short vs long)
- body size / limb length
Stretching: Dynamic

- Ballistic
- bouncing (stretch reflex-muscle spindle)
- acute
- Muscle tissue (neural)
- Specific WU (sport specific)
Stretching: Dynamic

"circles"
- RofM exercises, position not held
- acute
- CT & muscle tissue
- WU (general or specific or daily exercises for arthritis)
Stretching: Static

- Active
- contract opposite muscle (reciprocal inhibition - muscle spindle)
- acute or chronic
- muscle tissue (neural)
- Specific WU or CD
Stretching: Static

- Passive
- static - supported
- Chronic
- CT and muscle tissue
- CD (dull neural response)
- not prior to 1-3 RM, plyo)
Stretching: Static

- PNF
- static (autogenic-inhibition-GTO) & active (recipriocal inhibition) may be combined
- chronic
- CT & muscle tissue
- CD (dull neural response)
Plyometric Training
- Exercises or activities enabling muscle to reach max force in shortest time possible (power)
- to activate more MU more quickly, causing better neurological adaptation.
All or none Principle
- Action potential (electric current) flows along a motor neuron excites muscle fibers by chemical transmission
- Arrival of Action Potential at nerve terminal, causes release of NT, acetylcholine > diffuses across NMJ
- causes excitation of sarcolemma
- Sufficient enough ACH is released, AP is generated across sarcolemma and fiber contracts
- All fibers in MU contract and develop force at same time
- Motor neuron can't turn on only specific muscle fibers
- Strong AP, can't produce stronger contraction
Muscle Fiber Types
Way to classify fibers is according to their twitch time
- ST & FT
- Type I: Slow Twitch
- Type IIa (fast twitch)
- Type IIb or Type IIx (fast twitch)
Muscle Fiber Types

- Type I Fibres
- efficient and fatigue resistant
- high capacity for aerobic E supply
Muscle Fiber Types

- Type II
- inefficient and fatiguable
- low aerobic power
- rapid force development
- high anaerobic power
- Type IIa & Type IIx differ in capacity for aerobic oxidative E supply
Muscle Fiber Types

- Type IIa
- great capacity for Aerobic Metabolism
- more capillaries surround them than Type IIx
- greater resistance to fatigue
- slight combination of Type I & Type IIx (in between)
Preloading
- max force production doesn't occur early in ROM if muscle is unloaded
- Some muscle fibers that are active early in ROM will not be fully activated unless muscle is loaded prior to muscle action.
- preloading occurs since sufficient muscle force must be developed to overcome inertia.
Proprioception
- specialized sensory receptors located in: joints, muscles, and tendons
- sensitive to pressure, can relay info about muscle dynamics to conscious and subconscious pars of CNS.
Muscle Spindles
- are proprioceptors that consist of several modified muscle fibers enclosed in sheath of CT
- provide info about muscle length and rate of change in length
- muscle lengthens, spindles stretch
- greater the stretch, engagement of muscle spindles results in greater activation of the muscle spindles
(eg: knee jerk)
Golgi Tendon Organs
- are proprioceptors located in tendons
- activated when tendon attached to active muscle is stretched
- Tension in muscle increase, discharge of GTO increases
- feedback from spinal cord, inhibits muscle activation, allows relaxation of muscles
Sarcopenia
- reduced muscle function in older adults
- reduced muscle size and strength as a result of aging.
Bioenergetics
- flow of E in biological systems
- conversion of macronutrients into biologically usable forms of E
Catabolism
- breakdown of large molecules into smaller molecules
(eg: breakdown of proteins into A.A)
Anabolism
- synthesis of larger molecules from smaller molecules
(eg: formation of proteins from A.A)
Exergonic Reaction
- E-releasing reactions
- generally catabolic
Endergonic Reactions
- Require E and include anabolic processes and contraction of muscle
Metabolism
- total of all catabolic or exergonic and anabolic or endergonic reactions in a biological system.
ATP
- Adenosine Triphosiphate
- composed of adenosine and 3 phosphate groups
- allows the transfer of E from exergonic to endergonic reactions
- allows for muscular activity
- metabolic processes use ATP
Phosphagen system
- provides ATP primarily for short-term, high-intensity activities (sprinting, RT)
- active at start of all exercises regardless of intensity
- E system relies on hydolysis of ATP and breakdown of Creatine Phosphate (CP) [high E molecule]
- Creatine Kinase is the enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of ATP from CP and ADP
- CP supplies a phosphate group that combines w/ ADP to replenish ATP
- CP is stored in small amts, can't be primary supplier of E for long duration
ATP Stores
- about 80-100g ATP in body at any given time
Glycolysis
- break down of carbs - either glycogen stored in muscle or glucose delivered in blood to resynthesize ATP
Joint Classification
- Fibrous
- Cartilagenous
- Synovial
Joint Classification

- Fibrous
- Fibrous joint where bones are bound via fibrous tissue
- immovable
- (eg: skull sutures)
Joint Classification

- Cartilagenous
- Bones attached by fibrocartilage or hyaline cartilage
- Can be immovable (synarthrosis)
- Can be slightly movable (amphiarthrosis)
- eg) symphyses - slightly movable (eg) pubic symphysis
Joint Classification

- Synovial
- joint filled w/ synovial fluid
- fully movable
- known as Diarthroses
eg) hinge: ,
- saddle: flex/ext - elbow jt
- plane: sliding/gliding - acromioclavicular jt
- pivot: atlanto-axial jt
- condyloid (metacarpophalangeal jt
- ball & socket: glenohumeral jt