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95 Cards in this Set

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gamete

Reproductive cell (ovum or sperm) that contains one-half of the chromosomes required to produce an offspring of the species

libido

Psychological and physical drive for sexual activity

semen

Fluid containing sperm and secretions from the prostate and other structures of the male reproductive system; also called seminal fluid

sphincter

Ringlike muscle that opens and closes a body opening to allow or restrict passage through the structure

testosterone

Androgenic hormone responsible for the development of the male sex organs, including the penis, testicles, scrotum, and prostate. Also plays an important role in libido and secondary sex characteristics.

testes(or testis, singular)

produce the hormone testosterone and are located in an external sac called the scrotum

scrotum

external sac that contains the testes

seminiferous tubules

numerous small tubes that twist and coil as well as produce sperm(male gamete)

epididymis

single, tightly coiled tube lying on superior surface of each testis; stores sperm after it leaves the seminiferous tubules and also the first duct through which sperm passes after its production in the testes. Forms the vas deferens(seminal duct) as it traces upwards.

vas deferens

A narrow tube that passes through the inguinal canal into the abdominal cavity, estending over the top and down the posterior surface of the bladder where it joins the seminal vesicle.

seminal vesicle

union of this duct with vas deferens forms ejaculatory duct. contains nutrients that support sperm viability and produces approx. 60% of the seminal fluid that is ultimately ejaculated during sexual intercourse.

ejaculatory duct

leads to urethra where sperm can be ejaculated

coitus

sexual intercourse

prostate gland

triple-lobed organ fused to the base of the bladder. It secretes a thin, alkaline substance that accounts for about 30% of seminal fluid. Its alkalinity helps protect sperm from the acidic environments of the male urethra an the female vagina.

bulbourethral glands(Cowper)

two pea-shped structures located below the prostate and connected by a small duct to the urethra. THese provide the alkaline fluid for sperm viability.

penis

male organ of copulation

urethra

expels semen and urine from the body. During ejaculation the sphincter at the base of the bladder closes which not only stops urine from being expelled with the semen, but also prevents semen from entering the bladder.

glans penis

enlarged tip of the penis that contains the urethral orifice(meatus)

prepuce(foreskin)

moveable hood of skin

andr/o

male

androgenic: pertaining to maleess

balan/o

glans penis

balanoplasty: surgical repair of the glans penis

crypt/o

hidden

crptorchidism: condition of hidden testes; also called cryptorchism

epididym/o

epididymis

epididymotomy: incision of the epididymis

genit/o

genitalia

genitourinary: pertaining to the genitalia and urinary tract

gonad/o

gonads, sex glands

gonadopathy: disease of the sex glands

olig/o

scanty

oligospermia: scanty(decreased production) of sperm

orch/o


orchi/o


orchid/o


test/o

testis(plural: testes)

orchitis: inflammation of the testes


orchi/algia: pain in the testes


orchidoptosis: downward displacement of the testes


testalgia: pain of a testis

perine/o

perineum (area between scrotum[or vulva in the female]and anus)

perineal: pertaining to the perineum

prostat/o

prostate gland

prostatomegaly: enlargement of the prostate gland

spermat/o




sperm/o

spermatozoa, sperm cells

spermatocele: swelling containing spermatozoa



spermic: pertaining to sperm cells

varic/o

dilated vein

varicocele: swelling of a dilated vein


-cele: hernia, swelling

vas/o

vessel; vas deferens; duct

vasectomy: removal of (all or part of) the vas deferens



-ectomy: excision, removal

vesicul/o

seminal vesicle

vesiculitis: inflammation of the seminal vesicle


-itis: inflammation

-cide

killing

spermicide: (agents that) kill sperm; also called spermaticide

-genesis

forming, producing, origin

spermatogenesis: forming or producing sperm

-ism

condition

an/orch/ism: condition without testes

-spadias

slit, fissure

hypospadias: a fissure under the penis



Hypospadias is a congenital defect in which the urethra opens on the underside of the glans penis instead of the tip.

brachy-

short

brachytherapy: treatment from a short(distance)



Treatment where radioactive seeds are implanted directly into the malignant tissue.

epi-

above, upon

epispadias: fissure upon (dorsum of penis)

Urology

medicine concerned with the male reproductive system as well as urinary disorders in both males and females.

urologist

physician who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of genitourinary disorders

sexually transmitted diseases

any contagious disease acquired as a result of sexual activity with an infected partner

gonorrhea(neisseria gonorrhoeae)

symptom is pain upon urination in men(dysuria) and white discharge(leukorrhea). Women are typically asymptomatic. If left untreated, may infect bladder(cystitis) and inflame joints(arthritis). Sterility may result from formation of scars that close the reproductive tubes of both sexes(pelvic inflammatory disease). Antibiotics usual treatment.

chlamydia(chlamydia trachomatis)

most prevalent and most damaging STI in the US; silent disease as symptoms are mild or absent; if present, men may produce a whitish discharge from penis. In women there may be a mucopurulent discharge and inflammation of cervix uteri(cervicitis). May eventually cause sterility. Can be treated but often causes sterility due to many cases going untreated since it doesn't show symptoms.

syphilis(treponema pallidum)

if untreated, may become chronic, infectious, multisystemic disease. 3 phases;



1. primary sore(chancre) develops where organism enters body. Ulcerated sore with hard edges that contains infectious organisms


2 variety of symptoms that make diagnosis difficult


3 latent phase whereby the disease may remain dormant, but patient remains infectious; blindness, mental disorders, and eventual death. Treatment with antibiotics is effective.

genital herpes(herpes simplex virus; HSV)

causes red, blisterlike, painful lesions in genital area that closely resemble fever blisters or cold sores that appear on the lips and around the mouth. Both caused by HSV, but genital herpes is associated with type 2(HSV-2) and oral herpes is type 1(HSV-1). Regardless, both forms can cause oral and genitl infections through oral-genital sexual activity. Fluid in the blisters is highly infectious and contains the active virus. However, this disease is associated with a phenomenon called viral shedding - during viral shedding, the virus is present on the skin of the infected, and can be transmitted to sexual partners even when no lesions are present. The disease may be transmitted to a baby during the birth process and although rare may lead to death of the infant. In men, lesions appear on the glans, foreskin, or penile shaft. In females, lesions appear in the vaginal area, buttocks, and thighs. Antivirals may help but there is no cure.

genital warts(condylomata, condylomas)(human papillomavirus/HPV)

warts may be very small and almost unnoticeable or may be large and appear in clusters. in females, lesions may be found on the vulva, in the vagina, or on the cervix. In males, the lesions commonly appear on the penis or around the rectum. Many disappear without treatment, but there is no way to determine which ones will resolve. When treatment is required, surgical excision or freezing the wart is the usual method. Has been found to increase the risk of certain cancers, including penile, vaginal, cervical, and anal cancer. Much greater incidence of miscarriage in women with HPV.

trichomoniasis(protozoan trichomonas vaginalis)

affects males and females but symptoms more common in females; when symptoms are present in males, they include irritation inside the penis, mild discharge, or slight burning after urination or ejaculation. In women, vaginitis, urethritis, cystitis, frothy, yellow-green vaginal discharge with a strong odor. Infection may also cause discomfort during intercourse and urination as well as irritation and itching in the female genital area and rarely, lower abdominal pain. Important to treat both partners to avoid reinfection.

benign prostatic hyperplasia(BPH)

commonly associated with aging; as the prostate enlarges, it decreases the urethral lumen and complete voiding of urine becomes difficult, and urine that remains in the bladder commonly becomes a breeding ground for bacteria. Bladder infection(cystitis) and ultimately kidney infection(nephritis) may result. If medical management of BPH fails it may be necessary to use surgical methods.

cryptorchidism

undescended testicles; commonly accompanied by an inguinal hernia

orchiopexy

surgical suspension of the testes

herniorrhaphy

hernia sutures

prostate cancer

rare in men under 50 in the US, but symptoms include difficultry starting urination(hesitancy) and stopping the urinary stream, dysuria, urinary frequency, and hematuria.

radical prostatectomy

removal of entire prostate

internal radiation therapy

radioactive "seeds" are placed directly in the malignant tissue, remaining for long or short periods of time

external beam radiation(EBR)/external beam therapy(EBT)/teletherapy

high energy x-ray beams generated by a machine and directed at the tumor from outside the body to destroy prostate tissue.

cryosurgery

application of extreme cold, usually applied in early-stage prostate cancer or in cancer recurrence following other treatmence

combined hormonal therapy

antiandrogenic agents that deplete the body of testicular hormones , sometimes effective in early stages of the disease.

bilateral orchiectomy/castration

surgical removal of the testes

gynecomastia

enlargement of breast tissue in male

metastasized

cancer that has spread throughout the body

balanitis

inflammation of the skin covering the glans penis, caused by bacteria, fungi, or a virus

erectile dysfunction(ED)

repeated inability to initiate or maintain an erection sufficient for sexual intercourse

hypogonadian

decrease or lack of hormones normally produced by the gonads

hypospadias

congenital abnormality where the opening of the male urethra is on the undersurface of the penis instead of at its tip

phimosis

stenosis or narrowing of foreskin so that it cannot be retracted over the glans penis

priapism

prolonged and often painful erection of the penis, which occurs without sexual stimulation

prostatitis

acute or chronic inflammation of the prostate

testicular abnormalities

any of the various disorders that affect the testes

anorchism

absence of one or both testicles; also called anorchia or anorchidism

epididymitis

inflammation of the epididymitis

hydrocele

swelling of the sac surrounding the testes that is typically harmless

orchitis

painful swelling of one or both testes, commonly associated with mumps that develop after puberty

spermatocele

abnormal, fluid-filled sac that develops in the epididymis and may or may not contain sperm; also called spermatic cyst

testicular mass

new tissue growth that appears on one or both testes and may be malignant or benign

testicular torsion

spontaneous twisting of testicle within the scrotum, leading to a decrease in blood flow to the affected testicle

varicocele

swelling and distention of veins of the spermatic cord, somewhat resembling varicose veins of the legs

sterility

inability to produce offspring; in the male, inability to fertilize the ovum

digital rectal examination

screening test that assesses the rectal wall surface for lesions or evaluates abnormalities of the pelvic area

orchiectomy

removal of one or both testicles; also called castration or orchidectomy

circumcision

removal of the foreskin, or fold of skin covering the tip (glans) of the penis

orchieopexy

fixation of the testes in the scrotum

prostatectomy

removal of all or part of the prostate

transurethral resection of prostate(TURP)

excision of the prostate gland by inserting a special endoscope(resectoscope) through the urethra and into the gladder to remove small pieces of tissue from the prostate gland.

urethroplasty

reconstruction of the urethra to relieve stricture or narrowing

vasectomy

removal of all or a segment of the vas deferens for male sterilization

prostate-specific antigen(PSA)

blood test used to detect prostatic disorders, especially prostate cancer; also called a tumor marker test

semen analysis

test that analyzes a semen sample for volume, sperm count, motility, and morphology to evaluate fertility or verify sterilization after a vasectomy.

ultrasound

high frequency sound waves are directed at soft tissue and reflected as "echoes" to roduce an image on a monitor of an internal body structure; also called ultrasound, sonography, and echo.

prostate ultrasound

us using an ultrasound probe inserted through the rectum to evaluate the prostate; also called transrectal ultrasound

scrotal ultrasound

us used to assess the contents of the scrotum, including the testicles, epididymus, and vas deferens, also called testicular ultrasound

androgens

increase testosterone levels

antiandrogens

suppress the production of androgen

anti-impotence agents

treat erectile dysfunction(impotence) by increasing flood flow to the penis, resulting in an erection. These should not be used by patients with coronary artery disease or hypertension.

antivirals

treat viral disorders by inhibiting their development