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82 Cards in this Set

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As the temperature at which a reaction takes place is increased:
the reaction rate and rate constant will increase because:

Rate=k [A] [B]

Heat is a product, which pushes equilibrium to the left (reactants), therefore both rate and rate constant are increased.
What is the concentration of I- ions in 0.20M solution of magnesium iodide?
MgI2 is the empirical formula, so for each mole of MgI2 dissolved, there are 2 moles of I- dissolved, therefore the answer is:

0.40M
What is the molar concentration of Ca2+ (aq) in a solution that is prepared by mixing 15ml of 0.02M CaCl2 (aq) solution w/ 10ml of 0.04M CaSO4 (aq) solution?
C1V1+C2V2=CfVf

answer: 0.028M

*don't have to change volumes to Liters
The resulting solution made from the combination of 50 ml of 1.0M LiOH w/ 50 ml of 1.0 HBr will be identical in all respects to 100 ml of...?
0.5 M LiBr

Acid-base neutralization (OH- and H+ are neutralized, which is half of the concentration of both)
High Ksp....
more soluble in water
"Calculate the solubility product" essentially means..
find Ksp
Solubility of a compound in water is the same as its...
concentration
When CaF2 is added to a 0.02 M solution of NaF, the solubility of CaF2 is:
low, because the concentration of F- already present in solution prevents dissolution of CaF2

*due to common ion effect, which pushes equilibrium towards formation of CaF2 instead of F-
The ionization constant of a strong acid (Ka) is...
Ka>1
Acid Base
A: H+ OH-
BL: H+ don. H+ accep.
L: e- accep. e- don.
:)
Calculate the concentration of F- ions in a 2M solution of HF. (Ka=6.8x10^-4)
HF<=>H+ + F-
I 2 0 0
C -x +x +x
E 2-x x x

[x]^2/2=6.8x10^-4
x=3.7x10^-2
quantum numbers
n=principal quantum number=1...infinity
l=azimuthal number= 0..n-1(l=0=>s, l=1=>p l=2=>d l=3=>f)
ml=-l...+l
ms=1/2, -1/2
"peak height" means that velocity is
zero
oxidizing agents get
reduced
reducing agents get
oxidized
Ideal gas assumptions
1. The molecules in the gas can be considered small hard spheres.

2. All collisions between gas molecules are elastic and all motion is frictionless (no energy is
lost in collisions or in motion).

3. Newton’s laws apply.

4. The distance between molecules on average is much larger than the size of the molecules.

5. The gas molecules are constantly moving in random directions with a distribution of speeds.

6. There are no attractive or repulsive forces between the molecules or the surroundings.
in terms of projectile motion, at the max height of the trajectory, what does v and a equal?
v=0

a=-10
"Energy loss" is the same as
Work=F.d
A string w/ one end tied is an example of a
traveling wave
A string w/ both ends tied is an example of a
standing wave
lasers have coherent light therefore the light does not
spread/diffuse
Ksp canNOT be changed by ___ but can be changed by ___
pH

temperature
Nearsightedness
Myopia

Image is formed in front of retina

corrected w/ divergent lens
Farsightedness
Hyperopia

Image is formed behind retina

corrected w/ convergent lens
1 Faraday is
96500 C/mol e-
A Farad is a measure of
capacitance
Nitrogen has ___ e- but forms only ___ bonds
5

3
Li-Tri-Tet-Tri-O
2-3-4-5-6 electron domains, mnemonic
Light vs Sound waves
Light: transverse; velocity decreases from gas to solid

Sound: longitudinal; velocity increases from gas to solid

*sound travels faster thru solids
Electronegativity difference <1.7 forms ____ bonds
covalent
"ionic character"
electronegativity difference
A sparingly soluble metal hydroxide M(OH)2 has a molar solubility of S mol/L @ 25 *C. Its Ksp value is:
4S^3

M(OH)2<=> M2+ + 2OH-

Ksp= [m2+] [OH-]^2= (S) (2S)^2=4S^3
An astronaut on Earch notes that in her soft drink can ice cube floats w 9/10 its volume submerged. if she were instead in a lunar module parked on the moon where the gravitational force is 1/6 that of earth, the ice in the same soft drink would float:
w/ 9/10 submerged. (the same)

Floating=> Fg=Fb => mg=pVg => m=pV, not dependent on gravity
How many Na+ ions are in 7.15g (50ml) solution of Na2CO3? (mw=286.14g/mol)
7.15g * (mol/286.14g)=0.005mol * (6.022x10^23atom/mol)
=
3* 10^22
Unfilled d orbitals cause ___ in the case of Nickel (II)
color
Precipitates form because
the Ksp gets exceeded
Metathesis reaction is the same as
a double displacement reaction
Electromotive force
intrinsic voltage capacity of a given battery
Only ____ can change the speed of sound
REFRACTION
speed does not effect the ______ of a particle
electrical force
the higher the vapor pressure, the more
volatile the substance
Buffers
resist pH changes
speed of a wave is not dependent on the medium it is propagated on
:)
Momentum conservation pertains to
collisions
Newton's laws pertain to
bodies in motion and at rest
Archimedes' principle pertains to
buoyancy and fluids
Energy conservation pertains to
energy.... and therefore periodic motion
the speed of sound is greatest in
solids and at high temperatures
Ecell= (E red)cathode - (E red)anode
:)
Order of light spectrum
RIVUXG
^
[ROYGBV]
Formula for change in internal energy
delta U=Q + W

Q<0, heat loss
W<0, work done by system

Q>0, heat gained
W>0, work done on system
Kinematics formulas
d=vt (no acceleration)

d=vavg t (constant acceleration...)

d=vit+(1/2)at^2

vf^2=vi^2+2ad

d=(1/2)at^2

vf=vi+at
distance vs. time graph
slope gives velocity
velocity vs time graph
slope gives acceleration

area under curve gives displacement
Projectile motion formulas
tup=0-vyi/g

ymax=(vyi/2) tup

ttotal=2tup

x=vx ttotal
Newton's laws
1: an object's velocity remains constant unless a net force is acting up on it, therefore F=0, v=constant

2: F=ma

3: action reaction pair
Gravity formulas
W=mg

Fg=Gmm/r^2

g=GM/r^2
Friction
Ff=uk Fn
Ffmax= us Fn
Centripetal force and acceleration
ac=v^2/r

F=mv^2/r=m ac
Work
W=Fd=(1/2) mv^2
Momentum and impulse
Momentum=mv

Impulse=change in momentum
Torque
t=Fl=Ia=rf sin theta
Hydrostatics formulas
Density: m/V

spec. grav.= density/density of water

P=F/A=pfluid g D
Buoyancy formulas
Fb=pfluid Vsubmerged g

Floating Fb=Wobject

%submerged=(density object/density fluid) * 100
Hydraulic jack formulas
F1/A1=F2/A2
Hydrodynamics formulas
f=Av

A1v1=A2v2

P1 + (1/2) pv^2 + pgy = P2 + (1/2) pv^2 +pgy
Simple Harmonic Motion
Spring: w=sqrt (k/m), where w=2pi*f

Pendulum: w=sqrt (g/L), where w=2pi*f
Springs
F=-kx

P.E.= (1/2) kx^2
sounds
wavelength * frequency=velocity

Speed of sound in gases: v= sqrt( P/p), where P=pressure and p=density
Standing waves
wavelengthn=2L/n (pipe open at both ends)

wavelengthn=4L/n (pipe open at one end)
Intensity
I=P/A=P/4pir^2

B=10 log (I/I0) where I0=10^-12 W/m^2
Doppler Effect
fo=fs v+- vo/ vs+-vs
Stress
Stress=modulus x strain

F/A= modulus x (change/initial)
Electric Forces
F=qE

F=kqq/r^2

E=kq/r^2

V=kq/r

PE=qV

V=Ed
Electric Circuits
V=IR

I=q/t

R=p L/A

P=VI

AC current power: Vrms * Irms
Capacitance
C=Q/V

C=E0 A/d

C=k E0 A/d

PE=(1/2) CV^2, energy stored in capacitor
Magnetism and Electricity
F=qvB sin theta, charged particle moving thru magnetic field

F=IlB sin theta, current carrying wire in magnetic field

B=u0 I/ 2pir, magnetic field due to current carrying wire
Right hand rule
Thumb=V or I

Fingers= B (curled for Mag. Field due to CCW)

Palm= Force
Light Formulas
wavelength * frequency= velocity

E=hf=hc/wavelength
Light
Angle of incidence=Angle of reflection

n1 sin theta1=n2 sin theta2, Snell's Law of Refraction

n=c/v, index of refraction

sin theta crit.= n2/n1, Total Internal Reflection
Interference
Double slit interference:
d sin theta= m wavelength, Bright fringes
d sin theta= m wavelength, Dark fringes

Diffraction grating:
d sin theta= m wavelength

Single slit diffraction:
a sin theta= m wavelength, dark fringes

Thin Films:
2t=(m + 1/2) wavelengthfilm, no phase shift between rays
2t=m wavelengthfilm, phase shift between reflected rays

[*Reflected rays are inverted when going from smaller to larger index of refraction*]
Optics -Mirrors and Lenses
1/do + 1/di =1/f

m=-di/do=hi/ho

f=(1/2) R

Lens strength=1/f

Mirrors:
di do f
CC: +(do>f) + +
-(do<f) + +
CV: - + -

Lenses:
di do f
CV: +(do>f) + +
-(do<f) + +
DV: - + -

di>0, m<0, Real and Inverted
di<0, m>0, Virtual and Upright