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82 Cards in this Set
 Front
 Back
As the temperature at which a reaction takes place is increased:

the reaction rate and rate constant will increase because:
Rate=k [A] [B] Heat is a product, which pushes equilibrium to the left (reactants), therefore both rate and rate constant are increased. 

What is the concentration of I ions in 0.20M solution of magnesium iodide?

MgI2 is the empirical formula, so for each mole of MgI2 dissolved, there are 2 moles of I dissolved, therefore the answer is:
0.40M 

What is the molar concentration of Ca2+ (aq) in a solution that is prepared by mixing 15ml of 0.02M CaCl2 (aq) solution w/ 10ml of 0.04M CaSO4 (aq) solution?

C1V1+C2V2=CfVf
answer: 0.028M *don't have to change volumes to Liters 

The resulting solution made from the combination of 50 ml of 1.0M LiOH w/ 50 ml of 1.0 HBr will be identical in all respects to 100 ml of...?

0.5 M LiBr
Acidbase neutralization (OH and H+ are neutralized, which is half of the concentration of both) 

High Ksp....

more soluble in water


"Calculate the solubility product" essentially means..

find Ksp


Solubility of a compound in water is the same as its...

concentration


When CaF2 is added to a 0.02 M solution of NaF, the solubility of CaF2 is:

low, because the concentration of F already present in solution prevents dissolution of CaF2
*due to common ion effect, which pushes equilibrium towards formation of CaF2 instead of F 

The ionization constant of a strong acid (Ka) is...

Ka>1


Acid Base
A: H+ OH BL: H+ don. H+ accep. L: e accep. e don. 
:)


Calculate the concentration of F ions in a 2M solution of HF. (Ka=6.8x10^4)

HF<=>H+ + F
I 2 0 0 C x +x +x E 2x x x [x]^2/2=6.8x10^4 x=3.7x10^2 

quantum numbers

n=principal quantum number=1...infinity
l=azimuthal number= 0..n1(l=0=>s, l=1=>p l=2=>d l=3=>f) ml=l...+l ms=1/2, 1/2 

"peak height" means that velocity is

zero


oxidizing agents get

reduced


reducing agents get

oxidized


Ideal gas assumptions

1. The molecules in the gas can be considered small hard spheres.
2. All collisions between gas molecules are elastic and all motion is frictionless (no energy is lost in collisions or in motion). 3. Newton’s laws apply. 4. The distance between molecules on average is much larger than the size of the molecules. 5. The gas molecules are constantly moving in random directions with a distribution of speeds. 6. There are no attractive or repulsive forces between the molecules or the surroundings. 

in terms of projectile motion, at the max height of the trajectory, what does v and a equal?

v=0
a=10 

"Energy loss" is the same as

Work=F.d


A string w/ one end tied is an example of a

traveling wave


A string w/ both ends tied is an example of a

standing wave


lasers have coherent light therefore the light does not

spread/diffuse


Ksp canNOT be changed by ___ but can be changed by ___

pH
temperature 

Nearsightedness

Myopia
Image is formed in front of retina corrected w/ divergent lens 

Farsightedness

Hyperopia
Image is formed behind retina corrected w/ convergent lens 

1 Faraday is

96500 C/mol e


A Farad is a measure of

capacitance


Nitrogen has ___ e but forms only ___ bonds

5
3 

LiTriTetTriO

23456 electron domains, mnemonic


Light vs Sound waves

Light: transverse; velocity decreases from gas to solid
Sound: longitudinal; velocity increases from gas to solid *sound travels faster thru solids 

Electronegativity difference <1.7 forms ____ bonds

covalent


"ionic character"

electronegativity difference


A sparingly soluble metal hydroxide M(OH)2 has a molar solubility of S mol/L @ 25 *C. Its Ksp value is:

4S^3
M(OH)2<=> M2+ + 2OH Ksp= [m2+] [OH]^2= (S) (2S)^2=4S^3 

An astronaut on Earch notes that in her soft drink can ice cube floats w 9/10 its volume submerged. if she were instead in a lunar module parked on the moon where the gravitational force is 1/6 that of earth, the ice in the same soft drink would float:

w/ 9/10 submerged. (the same)
Floating=> Fg=Fb => mg=pVg => m=pV, not dependent on gravity 

How many Na+ ions are in 7.15g (50ml) solution of Na2CO3? (mw=286.14g/mol)

7.15g * (mol/286.14g)=0.005mol * (6.022x10^23atom/mol)
= 3* 10^22 

Unfilled d orbitals cause ___ in the case of Nickel (II)

color


Precipitates form because

the Ksp gets exceeded


Metathesis reaction is the same as

a double displacement reaction


Electromotive force

intrinsic voltage capacity of a given battery


Only ____ can change the speed of sound

REFRACTION


speed does not effect the ______ of a particle

electrical force


the higher the vapor pressure, the more

volatile the substance


Buffers

resist pH changes


speed of a wave is not dependent on the medium it is propagated on

:)


Momentum conservation pertains to

collisions


Newton's laws pertain to

bodies in motion and at rest


Archimedes' principle pertains to

buoyancy and fluids


Energy conservation pertains to

energy.... and therefore periodic motion


the speed of sound is greatest in

solids and at high temperatures


Ecell= (E red)cathode  (E red)anode

:)


Order of light spectrum

RIVUXG
^ [ROYGBV] 

Formula for change in internal energy

delta U=Q + W
Q<0, heat loss W<0, work done by system Q>0, heat gained W>0, work done on system 

Kinematics formulas

d=vt (no acceleration)
d=vavg t (constant acceleration...) d=vit+(1/2)at^2 vf^2=vi^2+2ad d=(1/2)at^2 vf=vi+at 

distance vs. time graph

slope gives velocity


velocity vs time graph

slope gives acceleration
area under curve gives displacement 

Projectile motion formulas

tup=0vyi/g
ymax=(vyi/2) tup ttotal=2tup x=vx ttotal 

Newton's laws

1: an object's velocity remains constant unless a net force is acting up on it, therefore F=0, v=constant
2: F=ma 3: action reaction pair 

Gravity formulas

W=mg
Fg=Gmm/r^2 g=GM/r^2 

Friction

Ff=uk Fn
Ffmax= us Fn 

Centripetal force and acceleration

ac=v^2/r
F=mv^2/r=m ac 

Work

W=Fd=(1/2) mv^2


Momentum and impulse

Momentum=mv
Impulse=change in momentum 

Torque

t=Fl=Ia=rf sin theta


Hydrostatics formulas

Density: m/V
spec. grav.= density/density of water P=F/A=pfluid g D 

Buoyancy formulas

Fb=pfluid Vsubmerged g
Floating Fb=Wobject %submerged=(density object/density fluid) * 100 

Hydraulic jack formulas

F1/A1=F2/A2


Hydrodynamics formulas

f=Av
A1v1=A2v2 P1 + (1/2) pv^2 + pgy = P2 + (1/2) pv^2 +pgy 

Simple Harmonic Motion

Spring: w=sqrt (k/m), where w=2pi*f
Pendulum: w=sqrt (g/L), where w=2pi*f 

Springs

F=kx
P.E.= (1/2) kx^2 

sounds

wavelength * frequency=velocity
Speed of sound in gases: v= sqrt( P/p), where P=pressure and p=density 

Standing waves

wavelengthn=2L/n (pipe open at both ends)
wavelengthn=4L/n (pipe open at one end) 

Intensity

I=P/A=P/4pir^2
B=10 log (I/I0) where I0=10^12 W/m^2 

Doppler Effect

fo=fs v+ vo/ vs+vs


Stress

Stress=modulus x strain
F/A= modulus x (change/initial) 

Electric Forces

F=qE
F=kqq/r^2 E=kq/r^2 V=kq/r PE=qV V=Ed 

Electric Circuits

V=IR
I=q/t R=p L/A P=VI AC current power: Vrms * Irms 

Capacitance

C=Q/V
C=E0 A/d C=k E0 A/d PE=(1/2) CV^2, energy stored in capacitor 

Magnetism and Electricity

F=qvB sin theta, charged particle moving thru magnetic field
F=IlB sin theta, current carrying wire in magnetic field B=u0 I/ 2pir, magnetic field due to current carrying wire 

Right hand rule

Thumb=V or I
Fingers= B (curled for Mag. Field due to CCW) Palm= Force 

Light Formulas

wavelength * frequency= velocity
E=hf=hc/wavelength 

Light

Angle of incidence=Angle of reflection
n1 sin theta1=n2 sin theta2, Snell's Law of Refraction n=c/v, index of refraction sin theta crit.= n2/n1, Total Internal Reflection 

Interference

Double slit interference:
d sin theta= m wavelength, Bright fringes d sin theta= m wavelength, Dark fringes Diffraction grating: d sin theta= m wavelength Single slit diffraction: a sin theta= m wavelength, dark fringes Thin Films: 2t=(m + 1/2) wavelengthfilm, no phase shift between rays 2t=m wavelengthfilm, phase shift between reflected rays [*Reflected rays are inverted when going from smaller to larger index of refraction*] 

Optics Mirrors and Lenses

1/do + 1/di =1/f
m=di/do=hi/ho f=(1/2) R Lens strength=1/f Mirrors: di do f CC: +(do>f) + + (do<f) + + CV:  +  Lenses: di do f CV: +(do>f) + + (do<f) + + DV:  +  di>0, m<0, Real and Inverted di<0, m>0, Virtual and Upright 