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133 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
A measure of the smallest distance that distinguishes two individual objects is the


resolution
In biology, we call the basic unit of life the ________.


cell
Photosynthetic membrane systems and mesosomes are internal membrane components of

certain organisms termed ________.



prokaryotes
The light microscope has glass lenses for focusing light (photons) for imaging, whereas the electron microscope has ________(BLANK) for focusing electrons for imaging.
magnets
Membranous cellular subsystems are termed ________.



organelles

(BLANK)

________ is the process whereby light energy is converted into chemical bonds
photosynthesis
The ________ (BLANK)is the organelle or structure with the most lipid membrane in eukaryotic

cells.

mitochondria
The ________ (BLANK)is an organelle that serves as a sort of "postal depot" where some of the

proteins synthesized on ribosomes and rough ER are processed.

Golgi apparatus
RNA carries information for protein synthesis from the DNA in the nucleus to the ribosomes in the cytoplasm. To get from the nucleoplasm to the cytoplasm, RNA must

pass through ________.



nuclear pores
All organisms are composed of cells; all cells come from preexisting cells. These

statements are called ________.



the cell theory
When you cut an orange in half, you ________

(BLANK)the surface area-to-volume ratio.

increase
The DNA in a prokaryotic cell can be found in the ________ (BLANK)region.
nucleoid
The ________(BLANK)of some bacteria help them avoid being detected by the human immune

system.

capsule
The meshwork of intermediate filaments found on the interior surface of the nuclear

membrane is called the ________.





nuclear lamina
Steroids, fatty acids, phospholipids, and carbohydrates are synthesized in the ________.



smooth ER
The side of the Golgi facing the ER is the ________.



cis
The substances that enter the Golgi come from the ________.



ER
Toxic peroxides that are unavoidably formed as side products of important cellular

reactions are found and neutralized in ________.





peroxisomers
The ________(BLANK) is the cytoskeletal component with the smallest diameter.
aclin or microfilament
Keratin is classified as an ________(BLANK) type of filament.
intermediate
The surface area to volume ratio of an object can be decreased by
making it spherical
What must cells do in order to survive?

Obtain and process energy.


Convert genetic information into protein.


Keep certain biochemical reactions separate from each other.

Cholesterol is synthesized by
the S.E.R
Examples of cellular "appendages" include

cilia,


flagella,


pili.

Roles of biological membranes in eukaryotic cells include which of the functions listed

below?


A) Trafficking of molecules.


B) Serving as staging areas for cellular interaction.


C) Mediating adhesion-recognition reactions between cells.


D) Participating in energy transformations E) All of the above

E) All of the Above

The utilization of "food" in the mitochondria, with the associated formation of ATP, is

termed

cellular respiration
The DNA of mitochondria is located in the
matrix
The DNA of a chloroplast is located in the
stroma
Components of chloroplasts include

grana AND


thylakoids.

The cell is the basic unit of function and reproduction because
subcellular components cannot regenerate whole cells.
What is the major distinction between prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells?
A prokaryotic cell does not have a nucleus, and a eukaryotic cell does.

Which of the following is not a characteristic of a prokaryotic cell?


A) A plasma membrane B) A nuclear envelope C) A nucleoid D) Ribosomes E) Enzymes

B) nuclear envelope
All members of the kingdom Eubacteria
are prokaryotes.
Ribosomes are made up of
RNA and proteins.

Which of the following are found in prokaryotic cells?


A) Mitochondria


B) Chloroplasts


C) Nuclei


D) Enzymes


E) Endomembrane system

D)Enzymes
The infoldings of the plasma membrane of certain prokaryotic organisms can form which

of the following structures?


A) Photosynthetic system B) Cell wall C) Nuclear membrane D) Capsule E) Ribosome

A)photosynthetic system
The DNA of prokaryotic cells is found in the
nucleoid region
Which structure supports the plant cell and determines its shape?
cell wall
Some bacteria are able to propel themselves through liquid by means of a structure called

the

flagellum
If you removed the pili from a bacterial cell, which of the following would you expect to

happen?

The bacterium would not adhere to other cells as well.
The shortest distance that can be resolved with a normal unaided eye is
200mm
Ribosomes are not visible under a light microscope, but can be seen with an electron

microscope. This is because

electron microscopes have more resolving power than light microscopes.

Using a light microscope it is possible to view cytoplasm streaming around the central vacuole in cells of the green alga Nitella. Why would you use a light microscope instead of an electron


microscope to study this process?

The electron microscope cannot be used to observe living cells.

Which of the following is a general function of all cellular membranes?


A) They regulate which materials can cross the membrane.


B) They support the cell and determine its shape.


C) They produce energy for the cell.


D) They produce proteins for the cell.


E) They move the cell.

A) They regulate which materials can cross the membrane.

Which statement about the nuclear envelope is true?


A) It contains pores for the passage of large molecules.


B) It is composed of two membranes.


C) It contains ribosomes on the inner surface. D) a and b


E) All of the above

D) both a and b


It contains pores for the passage of large


molecules AND


It is composed of two membranes.

What is the purpose of the folds of the inner mitochondrial membrane?


A) They increase the volume of the mitochondrial matrix. B) They create new membrane-bounded compartments within the mitochondrion. C) They increase the surface area for the exchange of substances across the membrane. D) They anchor more of the mitochondrial DNA. E) The folds have no known purpose.

A) They increase the surface area for the exchange of substances across the membrane
Which type of organelle is found in plants but not in animals?
plastids
Where in the cell do you not find DNA?
cell cytosol

Which of the following statements about cells is true?


A) Animal cells do not produce chloroplasts. B) Animal cells do not have mitochondria.


C) All plant cells contain chloroplasts.


D) Plant cells do not have plastids.


E) None of the above

A) Animal cells do not produce chloroplasts.

Which of the following is not an argument for the endosymbiotic theory?


A) Mitochondria and chloroplasts have double membranes.


B) Mitochondria and chloroplasts cannot be grown in culture free of a host cell.


C) Mitochondria and chloroplasts have DNA and ribosomes.


D) Mitochondrial ribosomes are similar to bacterial ribosomes.


E) All of the above

B)Mitochondria and chloroplasts cannot be grown in culture free of a host cell.
What is the difference between "free" and "attached" ribosomes?
Free ribosomes are in the cytoplasm, while attached ribosomes are anchored to the

endoplasmic reticulum.


AND Free ribosomes produce proteins in the cytosol, while attached ribosomes produce


proteins that are inserted into the ER.

The carotenoid pigments that give ripe tomatoes their red color are contained in

organelles called

chromoplasts
Which is a function of a plant cell vacuole?

Storage of wastes AND


Support for the cell

Microtubules are made of
tubulin and are found in cilia.
The width of a typical animal cell is closest to
15 micrometers.
The smallest structure that can be clearly seen through a light microscope is
0.2 micrometer.
The two major types of cells are
prokaryotic and eukaryotic.
The one type of cell always lacking a cell wall is the
animal cell.
A structure found only in plant cells is the
glyoxysome
An organelle found in all eukaryotic cells during some portion of their lives is the
nucleus
Ribosomes are important because they are the structures where
genetic information is used to make proteins.
Chloroplasts are important because they are the structures where
energy from the sun is converted to chemical energy.
An organelle consisting of a series of flattened sacks stacked somewhat like pancakes is

the

Golgi apparatus.
An organelle with an internal cross section showing a characteristic "9 + 2" morphology

is the

flagellum
An organelle bounded by two distinct membranes is the
nucleus
Chromatin is a series of entangled threads composed of
DNA and protein
Ribosomes are not found in
the Golgi apparatus.
The overall shape of a cell is determined by its
cytoskeleton
Structure of an animal cell, the one with the largest volume is the
nucleus
Structure of a plant cell, the one that most often has the greatest volume

is the

vacuole
Structure in an animal cell that will usually have the greatest number of is the
ribosome
Structure that contains both a matrix and cristae is the
mitochondrion
Light energy for conversion to chemical energy is trapped in the
thylakoid
Proteins that will function outside of the cytosol are made by
ribosomes on the rough endoplasmic reticulum.
Cilia contain
microtubules
You would not expect to find RNA in which of the following structures?
vacuole
Tthe structure involved with the movement of organelles within a cell is/are the
microfilaments
Chloroplasts are a kind of
plastid

Which of the following is not a component of the endomembrane system?


A) Rough endoplasmic reticulum


B) Smooth endoplasmic reticulum


C) Golgi apparatus


D) Lysosomes


E) Plastids

E) plastids
A prokaryotic cell does not have a
nucleus or organelles.
The pores found in the nuclear membrane are composed of
eight large protein granules.
Starch molecules are stored inside
leucoplasts
Some organelles in eukaryotic cells are thought to have
originated from endosymbiotic relationships.
The membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum are continuous with the membranes of the
nucleus
The rough ER is the portion of the ER that
has ribosomes attached to it
The difference in the structure of the Golgi of plants, protists, and fungi when compared

to that of vertebrates is that the vertebrates' Golgi

forms a large apparatus from a few stacked sacks.
Materials that enter and leave the Golgi
are packaged on or in vesicles.
Proteins from the Golgi are transported to the correct location due to
signals found on the packaged proteins.
A secondary lysosome is a lysosome that
is a primary lysosome that has fused with a phagosome.
Lysosomes are important to eukaryotic cells because they contain
digestive enzymes
Which cellular components are most important for stabilizing the shape

of an animal cell?

Microfilaments
The surface area of some eukaryotic cells is greatly increased by
microvilli
Microvilli are created by projections of
actin
Hair and intermediate filaments are composed of
keratin
Microtubules are composed of subunits of
a and b tubulin.
The usefulness of microvilli to cells possessing them is
to greatly increase their surface area.
This cellular component can be found at the base of each cilium.
Basal body
The cellular structures that are most like centrioles are
basal bodies
What would you expect would happen if you removed a plant cell's wall and placed it

into a drop of water?

the cell would burst
You have found a mass of cells in the sediment surrounding a thermal vent in the ocean floor. The salinity in the area is quite high. Upon microscopic examination of the cells you find no evidence of membrane-bound organelles. How would you classify this cell?

As a prokaryotic cell AND


As a member of domain Archaea or Bacteria

Centrifugation of a cell results in the rupture of the cell membrane and the contents compacting into a pellet in the bottom of the centrifuge tube. Bathing this pellet with a glucose solution yields metabolic activity including the production of ATP. One of the contents of this pellet is most likely which of the following?
Mitochondria
Eukaryotic cells are thought to be derived from prokaryotic cells that underwent

phagocytosis without digestion of the phagocytized cell. This mutualistic relationship is explained by the

endosymbiotic theory
Though science fiction has produced stories like "The Blob," we don't see very many large single-celled organisms. Which of the following tends to limit cell size?
Surface area-to-volume ratios
Microscopes are used to resolve images that cannot be seen with the unaided eye. Electron microscopes use ___(BLANK)to resolve images, whereas light microscopes use

__________(BLANK)to resolve images .

diffraction of electron beams, light and lenses

Breakdown of phagocytized material

Lysozome
DNA synthesis
Nucleus
Protein synthesis
R.E.R
Protein folding
S.E.R
Packaging of materials for export
Golgi apparatus
Pigment production
Chromoplast
Cellular respiration
Mitochondrion
Photosynthesis
Chloroplast

Which of the following organelles are double membrane-bound?


A) Nucleus B) Chloroplast C) Mitochondrion D) All of the above

D)All of the above

Movement of cells is accomplished in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes with which of the

following structures?


A) Cilia B) Pili C) Dynein D) Flagella

D)Flagella

Which of the following statements regarding mitochondria and chloroplasts is true?


A) Some cells produce chloroplasts.


B) Mitochondria and chloroplasts may be found in the same cell.


C) Mitochondria and chloroplasts are not found in the same cell.


D) Chloroplasts can revert to mitochondria in certain conditions

B)Mitochondria and chloroplasts may be found in the same cell.

Which of the following best describes ribosomes?


A) Ribosomes guide protein synthesis.


B) Ribosomes are found only in the nucleus or on the RER.


C) There are no ribosomes in the mitochondria. D) All of the above



A)Ribosomes guide protein synthesis.

Nuclear DNA exists as a complex of proteins called __________ (BLANK)that condenses into

__________(BLANK)during cellular division.

chromatin, chromosomes
Rough endoplasmic reticulum and smooth endoplasmic reticulum differ
both in the presence or absence of ribosomes and in their function.

Which is present in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic animal cells?


A) Chloroplast B) Mitochondrion C) Cell wall D) Nucleus E) Ribosomes

E)Ribosomes
The major factor limiting cell size is the
ratio of surface area to volume
Which statement about mitochondria is not true?
They are green because of the chlorophyll they contain.

Which statement about the endoplasmic reticulum is not true?


A) It is of two types: rough and smooth.


B) It is a network of tubes and flattened sacs.


C) It is found in all living cells.


D) Some of it is sprinkled with ribosomes. E) Parts of it modify proteins.

C)It is found in all living cells.
The Golgi apparatus
packages and modifies proteins.

Which statement about the plant cell wall is not true?


A) Its principal chemical components are polysaccharides.


B) It lies outside the plasma membrane.


C) It provides support for the cell.


D) It completely isolates adjacent cells from one another.


E) It is semirigid.

D)It completely isolates adjacent cells from one another.
How does the surface area-to-volume ratio of eight 3-mm cubes compare to the surface

area-to-volume ratio of one 6-mm cube?

Two times larger

In the eukaryotic cell, which one of the following is not a membranous compartment?


A) Nucleus B) Vacuole C) Mitochondrion D) Lysosome E) Ribosome

E)Ribosome
Which of the following

statements about the nuclear envelope is false?




A) The space between the inner and outer membranes contains the nuclear lamina. B) The inner and outer membranes are continuous. C) The nuclear pores connect the nucleoplasm and the cytoplasm. D) The inner and outer membranes are standard phospholipid bilayers. E) Nucleic acids can move through the nuclear pores.

A.) The space between the inner and outer membranes contains the nuclear lamina.

Which of the following statements about the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is false?


A) Ribosomes are located within the lumen of the rough ER. B) Cells that produce a lot of protein for export are packed with ER. C) Within the rough ER, many proteins fold and assume their normal tertiary structure. D) Carbohydrates are added to proteins to produce glycoproteins in the ER. E) Chemical modification of small molecules such as drugs or pesticides occurs within


the smooth ER.

B.)Cells that produce a lot of protein for export are packed with ER.
What organelle is not surrounded by a membrane?
microfilament
What is not a component of the cytoskeleton?
Microfibrils
Eukaryotic flagella
have the same internal structure as cilia.
Microfilaments
are composed of actin.
Which one of the structures listed below is found in eukaryotic cells but not in

prokaryotic cells? A) Cytosol B) Ribosomes C) Internal membranes D) Internal cytoskeleton E) Cell wall

C) Internal membranes