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117 Cards in this Set

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what do life histories include?

reproductive patterns, larval ecology, and migratory patterns

what components compete for resources in organisms?

maintenance==>somatic growth==> reproduction

how is an optimal reproductive strategy selected

profit gained by allocating resources to current reproduction vs. saving some energy for future reproduction

what are some life-history traits that serve as strategies

clutch size


generation time


age of initial reproduction


number of clutches


investment in offspring (egg size, brooding guarding, yolk present, etc)

what are the issues with size?

larger size tends to equal more gametes while cost of maintenance of metabolism increases with body size,


determinate vs. indeterminate growth

surplus energy could be put towards gamete output. what is the issue with optimal size

continue growth or stop? reproduce until get to optimal size

what factors may change the optimal body size

predation susceptibility


intraspecific competition


mating advantage

what are the modes of sexuality

asexual


monoecious (hermaphroditism)


dioecious (separate sexes)

adv. and disad. of asexual

adv.


-successful genotype proliferates


-don't need adaptations for gamete union


dis.


-identical genotype

asexual types

binary fission-single cells


fragmentation-"budding", pieces break off and form new individuals


parthenogenesis-unfertilized eggs develop via gametogenesis


vegetative reprodcution-division of one animal into multiple ones

types of hermaphroditism

simultaneous- has both types of gonads at same time, can reproduce with any other individual of species


sequential-individual reproduces more efficiently as one sex when small, but changes gender when older/larger, male than female (protandry) or female than male (protogyny)

adavantages of monoecious reproduction

density advantage in sedentary organisms (neighbors available for mating), are sequential but cyclical.


most mobile animals are permanent sequential


size advantage(size threshold for being female, since male gametes are cheaper but large males can outcompete other males )

what mechanism control hermaphroditism

behavioral social control


sex ratio threshold hypothesis


hormonal mechanisms


genetic mechanisms



advantages and disadvantages of dioecious

adv.


-genetic variation


dis


-adaptations needed to ensure gamete formation

mechanisms for gamete transfer

egg and sperm shed to water for external fertilization


sperm shed to water but fertilizes eggs internally within female


copulatory organ/gonopore allows mechanical transfer of male gametes to female or laid eggs

what is sexual dimorphism and how is it often represented

determined by sex chromosome vs. environment, morphological (body size and structures, copulatory organs), secondary sexual characteristics(coloration, behavioral, mate attraction)

how is reproduciton timed

correlates with seasonal changes through temperature (timing of spawning) or lunar cycle (tidal cycle, simultaneous spawning, larval transport), critical temperature often induces spawning, phytoplankton are also seasonal through light and nutrients

fish lifecycle?

egg (demersal or pelagic)


larval stages


-yolk-sac


-preflexion


-flexion


-postflexion


settler (post-settlement larva and postlarva)


juvenile

methods of oviparious reproductions

pelagic (broadcast spawning) spawning


demersal spawning


egg scattering


benthic broadcasting


brooding

Generalizations of larger eggs, larvae, and longer mobile phase

egg


-longer embryonic development


-higher yolk concentration


-advanced at hatching


-smaller clutch size


larvae


-at risk to predation


-transport in currents, higher mortality


longer mobile phase


-dispersal ability increased

three types of larval development

planktotrophic


lecithotrophic


direct development

define planktotrophic development

production of many small eggs with small yolk reserves per egg which hatch out into free swimming larvae in the plankton, larvae feed and develop in the plankton until undergo metamorphosis


released as planktonic gametes from egg cases or broods


time to metamorphosis in the genetic program and require suitable substratum to trigger it

trade-offs and advantages of planktotorphic development

risk of mortality in plankton vs. benefit of dispersal


adv.


-large number of young can be produced with a given amount of energy


-geographic range of larva increased

define facultative planktotrophy

similar to planktotrophy only larva do not need to feed in order to develop and metamorphosize




feeding results in faster development and larger juveniles


larval development becomes short while metamorphosis is delayed if no suitable substrate is found




not dependent on the plankton for food and short larval period reduces risk of being eaten

define lecithotrophic development and how is it advantageous

short planktonic stage with large egg yolk and does not feed in plankton, does not typically allow for long distance dispersal




adv.


-less time in the plankton and not depended on it for food


-settle in appropriate habitats near parent


dis.


-less dispersal capabilities, only few offspring are produced

advantages and disadvantages of direct development (egg cases)

dis.


little dispersal of young (restricted gene flow)




adv.


-lower rate of larval morality


-suitable environment

advantages and disadvantages of direct development (brooding)

dis


-restricted gene flow (little dispersal)


-fewer eggs




adv.


-suitable environment


-lower rate of early mortality

define dispersal hypothesis for larval development

limited to postlarval dispersal so pelagic eggs or larvae disperse


cheap means of dispersal via currents


colder water slows metabolism


increases larval mortality but is offset by large numbers of offspring

what is settlement success dependent on

colonizing ability (competence)


suitable habitat

define size-threshold-for reproduction hypothesis for larval development

lecitho- or direct


-body size of parent large enough to ensure a sufficient energy reserve to produce suffcient numbers of larvae (must attain the threshold size for large eggs)




plankto


-need may propagules to be feasible


-small organisms unable to make large enough number of eggs

define energy-subsidy hypothesis for larval development

phytoplankton blooms used to subzidize energy investment by parent




less energy invested in each larva then supplemented by feeding

define food-niche hypothesis for larval development

early stages exploit different food resources to avoid competition with parent

environmental constraints hypothesis for larval development

higher latitudes= more brooding


lower= more plankto.




deeper=more brooding; issue disputed


how does reproductive effort relate to semel. vs. itero. strategies

total lifetime reproducitve effort greater in semelparous




instantaneous reproductive effort increases in iteroparous with increased age and decreased life expectancy

issues for pelagic larvae before settling

food shortage in plankton (bad years)




transport to wrong habitat, countered by slective swimming behavior and settlement cues

issues for pelagic larvae after settling

predation on larvae




avoidance of crowding (space and food shortages)

what is substatum selection

cues and steps that a free-living larva goes through to elicit metamorphosis of larvae on the substratum


-physical characteristics of the substratum


-presence of adults of same species


-contact with substance


contact with biological substratum feature




look at diagram

advantages of migrations

active migration back to spawning grounds, reduces competition between adults and juveniles, allows reproduction and feeding at suitable locations

types of migrating fish

anadromous


-most of time in sea and return to freshwater to breed


catadromous


-adult in freshwater then migrate to sea to reproduce


oceanodromous


-live and migrate in the ocean

what are the most productive communities

estuaries


upwelling


coastal zones


coral reefs

what sustains areas of high primary productivity

high concentrations of nutrient-rich water


rapid cycling of materials by decomposers


sustained high numbers of organisms

how can dissolved organic matter be used for food

active uptake from water (against concentration gradient)


symbiosis


fluid uptake by mouth

examples of symbiosis

corals with zooxanthellae


giant clams with zooxanthellae


pogonophorans and clams with sulfur bacteria (hydrothermal vents)

how can fluid uptake of doc by mouth occur

parasitic copepods


leeches


mammal young

how can organic particulates be consumed

pseudopods-engulf small food particles


suspension feeders-filter out small particles


deposit feeders-ingest sediment with small organic particles


raptorial-"large particles", hunting

methods of particle capture

sieving


direct interception


inertial impaction


motile particle deposition


gravitational deposition

what are some suspension feeders

barnacles-setae actively sieve


larvaceans-gelatinous house used to filter water


fish-gill rakers


whales-baleen


bivalves-ctenidia with cilia

how is food selected for filter feeders

size-can't be too big or too small


feeding rate- particle number before and after feeding


particle concentration- if too high, filters can be clogged

food for filter feeders

phytoplankton, suspended bacteria, microorganisms on particles, resuspended particles and their microbiota, detritus, maybe DOM?

types of deposit feeders

sea cucumbers


yoldia (bivalve)-use palps


spionid polycheats-use palps


macoma bivalves-vacuum with siphons


capitellid & maldanid polychaetes-ingest particles, fresh sink


abarenicola-excavates water filled pocket

modes of feeding for deposit feeders

swallowers


tentacle feeders


surface siphon feeders


setose deposit feeders

what do deposit feeders eat

digest and assimilate microbial organisms attached and among particles, assimilation low due to indigestible material

what affects feeding rate in deposit feeders

food quality


degree of starvation


fraction available for feeding


population density



what is coprophay

invertebrate fecal material, important in benthic communites with lower nutritional value but readily available

what are some herbivore browsers

graze on algae or grasses


scrapers and chompers


wood feeders


cellulose feeders


symbiotic autotrophs

limitations to carnivores and scavengers

prey size dependent on predator size


(too big vs. too small to manipulate)


may only use a portion of prey`

components of predation cycle

search (time)


encounter (Y/N)


pursuit (time)


capture (probability)


handling (time, effort)



what does the predation cycle represent

different costs and gains, allows variation in each component for strategy



what does rate of acquiring food depend on

food availability


consumer ability

types of response of predator populations to prey density

functional-increases in prey, feeding rate increase to satiation




numerical-increases in prey, increases in predator number




developmental-get larger size with more food

types of functinoal responses

1-linear to satiation


2-consumption increase at decelerating rate (common)


3-initially rate of consumption increases then decelerating (sigmoid)

components of functional response, prey density

time searching


-relative mobility


-size of perceptual field


-search image


pursuing and handling


-pursue and subdue


-successful attacks


-time spend eating


-time spent digesting


degree of hunger


-rate of digestion and assimilation


-capacity of gut


-prey size vs stomach volume


inhibition of predation by prey


-behavior


-morphological adaptations (mimicry, spines, etc.)

batesian mimcry

harmless species has evolved to imitate the warning signals of a harmful species

mullerian mimcry

two or more harmful species, that are not closely related and share one or more common predators, have come to mimic each other's warning signals

componenets of functional response, predator density

social faciliation


avoidance learning


intensity of exploitation


interference among predators

components of numerical response

aggregation-move to areas with food


increased fecundity-more young with more food


increased survivorship-more food=longer lived

components of developmental response

eat more==>grow larger


partitioning of energy from food


aspect of phenotypic plasticity

factors affecting food selection

prey size


chemical composition (palatability)


toughness


energy maximizing vs. time minimizing strategy (optimal foraging theory)

prey switiching

use of mulple prey species


prey on most profitable, follow search image, then next most profitable, and so on


optimal foraging theory

demersal

temporarily associated with the bottom, often move away from bottom

what substrate are most marine species found

firm substrates (rocks, corals, reefs)

infauna

animals that live within the sediment

epifauna

live on or at sediment surface, mobile epifauna may enter water colum

how are some epifauna permanently attached

holdfasts (seaweeds)


roots (crinoids, grasses)


cements (oysters, barnacles)

how are some epifauan attached but can relocate

pedal disk (anemones)


byssal threads (mussels)


cirri (feather stars)

what type of adaptations are important for epifauna

those that avoid or minimize water turbulence (wave activity) (short/low profile, hiding, rigid bodies, structures to reduce shear stress)

how do bivalves penetrate the sediment

penetration or terminal anchor

what are the steps for terminal anchor

probe sediment, thrust foot into it, right shell, close siphons, terminal anchor dilation, pull animal down

why is burrowing and tube building important

helps consolidate sediment

how are infauna that don't build tubes or burrows importatn

reworking the sediment

what are some antipredator defenses

mechanical-spines, barbs


chemcial-produced or sequestered


coloration-cryptic, aposematic (warning)


escape behavior

benthic sizes

microfauna (1-100 um, live on sediment grains)


meiofauna(100-500 um, live between sediment grains)


macrofauna (>500 um bigger than sediment grains)

factors that can affect distribution in soft substrata

abiotic-grain size, DO, DOC,POC, light, oxidation-reduction state


biotic-food availability, predation, species composistion, dispersal and recruitment, behavior

bigenic sorting

sorting of particles by range of sizes in sediment by organisms, reworking sediments

trophic group amensalism

activity of animals belonging to one trophic group prevents colonization by members of the other

bioturbation and burrowing affect what

rate of exchange of dissolved/absorbed ions, compounds, gases


vertical gradients in Eh, pH, pO2, RPD


transfer reduced compounds to aerated sediments


cycling of c, n, s, p

redox potential discontinuity (RPD)

balance between processes which supply DO to surface sediments and those which remove it, reflects and results from interactions with biota and abiota, measured through Eh in mV (tendency of a chemical species to acquire elections and thereby be reduced)

effects of benthic organisms on sediments

grain size (compaction into fecal pellets, consolidation of particles)


water content (increases whth burrowing)


resuspension of sediments (increases flocculent layer)


microtopography (mounds, cones, burrows)


reworking and biogenic sedimentation

hydrological changes

altered water movement, but system is not completely destroyed

reclamation

draining or filling estuary or wetland to dry land

what are problems caused by dredging

short term degradation of organisms


changes in channel profile can change tidal area, wave height, etc


exposes anaerobic sedimonts


smother existing habitats

bulk heading and groins

-retaining wall or barrier


-human-built structures put at a right angle to the shoreline to prevent the erosion, deposition, and weathering of the shore

effect of dams

block movements of migratory organisms


change the timing of water discharge, affecting life histories

important fisheries

clupeids


gadoids


coastal fishes


anadromous fish


flatfishes


top pelagic predators


shellfish


crustaceans

maximum sustainable yield

largest average catch that can be continuously taken under prevailing experimental conditions

surplus production

amount of biomass in fishery not necessary for sustainability

fisheries paradigm

never know where the overfishing line is until you have overfished

overfishing

rate of removal is too high for population to replenish

overfished

too low or below a certain threshold


recruitment= adults depleted to a level of reduced reporduction


growth= caught at a size vefore they are able to contribute to MY per recruit

fishing down the food web

predatory fish are selectively removed from the ocean, people must increasingly rely on lower trophic level species for food

bycatch and ghost fishing

-organisms caught unintentionally while fishing


-discarded or lost fishing gear that continue to catch organisms

fisheries management

protect a portion of the population


protect fish habitat


protect the fishery




Magnum-Stevenson Act

what makes a good invasive species

opportunistic, generalist


fast growing


reproduce reapidly


no natural predators


aggressive competitors

effects of invasive species

displace native speices


reduce/degrade habitat


alter ecosystem processes

enrichment

addition of naturally occurring substances or heat to higher than normal levels that lead to changes in the structure or metabolism of the ecosystem

eutrophication

enrichment that occurs from high levels of inorganic nutrients (N, P), leads to algal blooms and increased turbidity and hypoxia

thermal pollution

adding warm water(power plant cooling intakes), leads to encrichment, thermal shock

pollutant


contaminant

measurable disorder


with or without causing measurable disorder

allochthonous


autochthonous


anthropogenic

external source


indigenous, internal source


human caused

q-point assimilation capacity

point where damage cost of pollution meets control costs, "acceptable level of pollution for society"

three letter toxins

DDT-insecticide, reduces reproduction


PCB-plasticizers and preservatives, causes birth defects


PAH-fossil fuel byproduct


PFC-teflons, powerful greenhouse gas


BPA-plastic ingredient, leaches into ocean, feminizer

petroleum effects

toxic to eggs and larva


reduces photosynthesis


covers organisms


chemical poisoning



bioremediation and its issues

use of micro-organisms to remove or transform pollutants


not practical due to size of ocean, containment issues, and marine snow


limited by organism, nutrients, growth conditions

bioaccumulation


biomagnification

accumulation of Hg in muscle tissues


high accumuations in higher trophic levels

fish feminization

male to female change through urinary byproduct of oral contraceptives and estrogen mimickers

indicators of global warming

increased atm. co2


global mean surface temperature


continental percipitation


heavy precipitation events


frequency and severity of droughts


global mean sea level


snow cover


el nino


tropical cyclone activity

el nino

southern oscillation, shift in position of atmospheric pressure centers in indian ocean, leads to changes in wind, rainfall, currents, sea level, blocks upwelling