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117 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

what do life histories include?

reproductive patterns, larval ecology, and migratory patterns

what components compete for resources in organisms?

maintenance==>somatic growth==> reproduction

how is an optimal reproductive strategy selected

profit gained by allocating resources to current reproduction vs. saving some energy for future reproduction

what are some life-history traits that serve as strategies

clutch size

generation time

age of initial reproduction

number of clutches

investment in offspring (egg size, brooding guarding, yolk present, etc)

what are the issues with size?

larger size tends to equal more gametes while cost of maintenance of metabolism increases with body size,

determinate vs. indeterminate growth

surplus energy could be put towards gamete output. what is the issue with optimal size

continue growth or stop? reproduce until get to optimal size

what factors may change the optimal body size

predation susceptibility

intraspecific competition

mating advantage

what are the modes of sexuality


monoecious (hermaphroditism)

dioecious (separate sexes)

adv. and disad. of asexual


-successful genotype proliferates

-don't need adaptations for gamete union


-identical genotype

asexual types

binary fission-single cells

fragmentation-"budding", pieces break off and form new individuals

parthenogenesis-unfertilized eggs develop via gametogenesis

vegetative reprodcution-division of one animal into multiple ones

types of hermaphroditism

simultaneous- has both types of gonads at same time, can reproduce with any other individual of species

sequential-individual reproduces more efficiently as one sex when small, but changes gender when older/larger, male than female (protandry) or female than male (protogyny)

adavantages of monoecious reproduction

density advantage in sedentary organisms (neighbors available for mating), are sequential but cyclical.

most mobile animals are permanent sequential

size advantage(size threshold for being female, since male gametes are cheaper but large males can outcompete other males )

what mechanism control hermaphroditism

behavioral social control

sex ratio threshold hypothesis

hormonal mechanisms

genetic mechanisms

advantages and disadvantages of dioecious


-genetic variation


-adaptations needed to ensure gamete formation

mechanisms for gamete transfer

egg and sperm shed to water for external fertilization

sperm shed to water but fertilizes eggs internally within female

copulatory organ/gonopore allows mechanical transfer of male gametes to female or laid eggs

what is sexual dimorphism and how is it often represented

determined by sex chromosome vs. environment, morphological (body size and structures, copulatory organs), secondary sexual characteristics(coloration, behavioral, mate attraction)

how is reproduciton timed

correlates with seasonal changes through temperature (timing of spawning) or lunar cycle (tidal cycle, simultaneous spawning, larval transport), critical temperature often induces spawning, phytoplankton are also seasonal through light and nutrients

fish lifecycle?

egg (demersal or pelagic)

larval stages





settler (post-settlement larva and postlarva)


methods of oviparious reproductions

pelagic (broadcast spawning) spawning

demersal spawning

egg scattering

benthic broadcasting


Generalizations of larger eggs, larvae, and longer mobile phase


-longer embryonic development

-higher yolk concentration

-advanced at hatching

-smaller clutch size


-at risk to predation

-transport in currents, higher mortality

longer mobile phase

-dispersal ability increased

three types of larval development



direct development

define planktotrophic development

production of many small eggs with small yolk reserves per egg which hatch out into free swimming larvae in the plankton, larvae feed and develop in the plankton until undergo metamorphosis

released as planktonic gametes from egg cases or broods

time to metamorphosis in the genetic program and require suitable substratum to trigger it

trade-offs and advantages of planktotorphic development

risk of mortality in plankton vs. benefit of dispersal


-large number of young can be produced with a given amount of energy

-geographic range of larva increased

define facultative planktotrophy

similar to planktotrophy only larva do not need to feed in order to develop and metamorphosize

feeding results in faster development and larger juveniles

larval development becomes short while metamorphosis is delayed if no suitable substrate is found

not dependent on the plankton for food and short larval period reduces risk of being eaten

define lecithotrophic development and how is it advantageous

short planktonic stage with large egg yolk and does not feed in plankton, does not typically allow for long distance dispersal


-less time in the plankton and not depended on it for food

-settle in appropriate habitats near parent


-less dispersal capabilities, only few offspring are produced

advantages and disadvantages of direct development (egg cases)


little dispersal of young (restricted gene flow)


-lower rate of larval morality

-suitable environment

advantages and disadvantages of direct development (brooding)


-restricted gene flow (little dispersal)

-fewer eggs


-suitable environment

-lower rate of early mortality

define dispersal hypothesis for larval development

limited to postlarval dispersal so pelagic eggs or larvae disperse

cheap means of dispersal via currents

colder water slows metabolism

increases larval mortality but is offset by large numbers of offspring

what is settlement success dependent on

colonizing ability (competence)

suitable habitat

define size-threshold-for reproduction hypothesis for larval development

lecitho- or direct

-body size of parent large enough to ensure a sufficient energy reserve to produce suffcient numbers of larvae (must attain the threshold size for large eggs)


-need may propagules to be feasible

-small organisms unable to make large enough number of eggs

define energy-subsidy hypothesis for larval development

phytoplankton blooms used to subzidize energy investment by parent

less energy invested in each larva then supplemented by feeding

define food-niche hypothesis for larval development

early stages exploit different food resources to avoid competition with parent

environmental constraints hypothesis for larval development

higher latitudes= more brooding

lower= more plankto.

deeper=more brooding; issue disputed

how does reproductive effort relate to semel. vs. itero. strategies

total lifetime reproducitve effort greater in semelparous

instantaneous reproductive effort increases in iteroparous with increased age and decreased life expectancy

issues for pelagic larvae before settling

food shortage in plankton (bad years)

transport to wrong habitat, countered by slective swimming behavior and settlement cues

issues for pelagic larvae after settling

predation on larvae

avoidance of crowding (space and food shortages)

what is substatum selection

cues and steps that a free-living larva goes through to elicit metamorphosis of larvae on the substratum

-physical characteristics of the substratum

-presence of adults of same species

-contact with substance

contact with biological substratum feature

look at diagram

advantages of migrations

active migration back to spawning grounds, reduces competition between adults and juveniles, allows reproduction and feeding at suitable locations

types of migrating fish


-most of time in sea and return to freshwater to breed


-adult in freshwater then migrate to sea to reproduce


-live and migrate in the ocean

what are the most productive communities



coastal zones

coral reefs

what sustains areas of high primary productivity

high concentrations of nutrient-rich water

rapid cycling of materials by decomposers

sustained high numbers of organisms

how can dissolved organic matter be used for food

active uptake from water (against concentration gradient)


fluid uptake by mouth

examples of symbiosis

corals with zooxanthellae

giant clams with zooxanthellae

pogonophorans and clams with sulfur bacteria (hydrothermal vents)

how can fluid uptake of doc by mouth occur

parasitic copepods


mammal young

how can organic particulates be consumed

pseudopods-engulf small food particles

suspension feeders-filter out small particles

deposit feeders-ingest sediment with small organic particles

raptorial-"large particles", hunting

methods of particle capture


direct interception

inertial impaction

motile particle deposition

gravitational deposition

what are some suspension feeders

barnacles-setae actively sieve

larvaceans-gelatinous house used to filter water

fish-gill rakers


bivalves-ctenidia with cilia

how is food selected for filter feeders

size-can't be too big or too small

feeding rate- particle number before and after feeding

particle concentration- if too high, filters can be clogged

food for filter feeders

phytoplankton, suspended bacteria, microorganisms on particles, resuspended particles and their microbiota, detritus, maybe DOM?

types of deposit feeders

sea cucumbers

yoldia (bivalve)-use palps

spionid polycheats-use palps

macoma bivalves-vacuum with siphons

capitellid & maldanid polychaetes-ingest particles, fresh sink

abarenicola-excavates water filled pocket

modes of feeding for deposit feeders


tentacle feeders

surface siphon feeders

setose deposit feeders

what do deposit feeders eat

digest and assimilate microbial organisms attached and among particles, assimilation low due to indigestible material

what affects feeding rate in deposit feeders

food quality

degree of starvation

fraction available for feeding

population density

what is coprophay

invertebrate fecal material, important in benthic communites with lower nutritional value but readily available

what are some herbivore browsers

graze on algae or grasses

scrapers and chompers

wood feeders

cellulose feeders

symbiotic autotrophs

limitations to carnivores and scavengers

prey size dependent on predator size

(too big vs. too small to manipulate)

may only use a portion of prey`

components of predation cycle

search (time)

encounter (Y/N)

pursuit (time)

capture (probability)

handling (time, effort)

what does the predation cycle represent

different costs and gains, allows variation in each component for strategy

what does rate of acquiring food depend on

food availability

consumer ability

types of response of predator populations to prey density

functional-increases in prey, feeding rate increase to satiation

numerical-increases in prey, increases in predator number

developmental-get larger size with more food

types of functinoal responses

1-linear to satiation

2-consumption increase at decelerating rate (common)

3-initially rate of consumption increases then decelerating (sigmoid)

components of functional response, prey density

time searching

-relative mobility

-size of perceptual field

-search image

pursuing and handling

-pursue and subdue

-successful attacks

-time spend eating

-time spent digesting

degree of hunger

-rate of digestion and assimilation

-capacity of gut

-prey size vs stomach volume

inhibition of predation by prey


-morphological adaptations (mimicry, spines, etc.)

batesian mimcry

harmless species has evolved to imitate the warning signals of a harmful species

mullerian mimcry

two or more harmful species, that are not closely related and share one or more common predators, have come to mimic each other's warning signals

componenets of functional response, predator density

social faciliation

avoidance learning

intensity of exploitation

interference among predators

components of numerical response

aggregation-move to areas with food

increased fecundity-more young with more food

increased survivorship-more food=longer lived

components of developmental response

eat more==>grow larger

partitioning of energy from food

aspect of phenotypic plasticity

factors affecting food selection

prey size

chemical composition (palatability)


energy maximizing vs. time minimizing strategy (optimal foraging theory)

prey switiching

use of mulple prey species

prey on most profitable, follow search image, then next most profitable, and so on

optimal foraging theory


temporarily associated with the bottom, often move away from bottom

what substrate are most marine species found

firm substrates (rocks, corals, reefs)


animals that live within the sediment


live on or at sediment surface, mobile epifauna may enter water colum

how are some epifauna permanently attached

holdfasts (seaweeds)

roots (crinoids, grasses)

cements (oysters, barnacles)

how are some epifauan attached but can relocate

pedal disk (anemones)

byssal threads (mussels)

cirri (feather stars)

what type of adaptations are important for epifauna

those that avoid or minimize water turbulence (wave activity) (short/low profile, hiding, rigid bodies, structures to reduce shear stress)

how do bivalves penetrate the sediment

penetration or terminal anchor

what are the steps for terminal anchor

probe sediment, thrust foot into it, right shell, close siphons, terminal anchor dilation, pull animal down

why is burrowing and tube building important

helps consolidate sediment

how are infauna that don't build tubes or burrows importatn

reworking the sediment

what are some antipredator defenses

mechanical-spines, barbs

chemcial-produced or sequestered

coloration-cryptic, aposematic (warning)

escape behavior

benthic sizes

microfauna (1-100 um, live on sediment grains)

meiofauna(100-500 um, live between sediment grains)

macrofauna (>500 um bigger than sediment grains)

factors that can affect distribution in soft substrata

abiotic-grain size, DO, DOC,POC, light, oxidation-reduction state

biotic-food availability, predation, species composistion, dispersal and recruitment, behavior

bigenic sorting

sorting of particles by range of sizes in sediment by organisms, reworking sediments

trophic group amensalism

activity of animals belonging to one trophic group prevents colonization by members of the other

bioturbation and burrowing affect what

rate of exchange of dissolved/absorbed ions, compounds, gases

vertical gradients in Eh, pH, pO2, RPD

transfer reduced compounds to aerated sediments

cycling of c, n, s, p

redox potential discontinuity (RPD)

balance between processes which supply DO to surface sediments and those which remove it, reflects and results from interactions with biota and abiota, measured through Eh in mV (tendency of a chemical species to acquire elections and thereby be reduced)

effects of benthic organisms on sediments

grain size (compaction into fecal pellets, consolidation of particles)

water content (increases whth burrowing)

resuspension of sediments (increases flocculent layer)

microtopography (mounds, cones, burrows)

reworking and biogenic sedimentation

hydrological changes

altered water movement, but system is not completely destroyed


draining or filling estuary or wetland to dry land

what are problems caused by dredging

short term degradation of organisms

changes in channel profile can change tidal area, wave height, etc

exposes anaerobic sedimonts

smother existing habitats

bulk heading and groins

-retaining wall or barrier

-human-built structures put at a right angle to the shoreline to prevent the erosion, deposition, and weathering of the shore

effect of dams

block movements of migratory organisms

change the timing of water discharge, affecting life histories

important fisheries



coastal fishes

anadromous fish


top pelagic predators



maximum sustainable yield

largest average catch that can be continuously taken under prevailing experimental conditions

surplus production

amount of biomass in fishery not necessary for sustainability

fisheries paradigm

never know where the overfishing line is until you have overfished


rate of removal is too high for population to replenish


too low or below a certain threshold

recruitment= adults depleted to a level of reduced reporduction

growth= caught at a size vefore they are able to contribute to MY per recruit

fishing down the food web

predatory fish are selectively removed from the ocean, people must increasingly rely on lower trophic level species for food

bycatch and ghost fishing

-organisms caught unintentionally while fishing

-discarded or lost fishing gear that continue to catch organisms

fisheries management

protect a portion of the population

protect fish habitat

protect the fishery

Magnum-Stevenson Act

what makes a good invasive species

opportunistic, generalist

fast growing

reproduce reapidly

no natural predators

aggressive competitors

effects of invasive species

displace native speices

reduce/degrade habitat

alter ecosystem processes


addition of naturally occurring substances or heat to higher than normal levels that lead to changes in the structure or metabolism of the ecosystem


enrichment that occurs from high levels of inorganic nutrients (N, P), leads to algal blooms and increased turbidity and hypoxia

thermal pollution

adding warm water(power plant cooling intakes), leads to encrichment, thermal shock



measurable disorder

with or without causing measurable disorder




external source

indigenous, internal source

human caused

q-point assimilation capacity

point where damage cost of pollution meets control costs, "acceptable level of pollution for society"

three letter toxins

DDT-insecticide, reduces reproduction

PCB-plasticizers and preservatives, causes birth defects

PAH-fossil fuel byproduct

PFC-teflons, powerful greenhouse gas

BPA-plastic ingredient, leaches into ocean, feminizer

petroleum effects

toxic to eggs and larva

reduces photosynthesis

covers organisms

chemical poisoning

bioremediation and its issues

use of micro-organisms to remove or transform pollutants

not practical due to size of ocean, containment issues, and marine snow

limited by organism, nutrients, growth conditions



accumulation of Hg in muscle tissues

high accumuations in higher trophic levels

fish feminization

male to female change through urinary byproduct of oral contraceptives and estrogen mimickers

indicators of global warming

increased atm. co2

global mean surface temperature

continental percipitation

heavy precipitation events

frequency and severity of droughts

global mean sea level

snow cover

el nino

tropical cyclone activity

el nino

southern oscillation, shift in position of atmospheric pressure centers in indian ocean, leads to changes in wind, rainfall, currents, sea level, blocks upwelling