Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/10

Click to flip

10 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Sex-Linked (X)

Female is carrier: X*X


Only males can get ALD: X*Y


Non-Carrier Female: XX


Non-Carrier Male: XY



25% chance for child to have active ALD...



Ex) Aunt D and Mikela are Carriers X*Y


Augusto just XY


Lorenzo has ALD X*Y


Aunts both just XX



Girls can't get ALD b/c they still have a working X gene that can produce needed proteins.

ALD Symptoms

Tantrums - Nerve Damage(brain) leading to loss of sight, hearing, sensations, movement - blind, deaf, mute - ends with death after vegetative state...



But Lorenzo outlived Mother and Doctor predictions... lived to 30!

Competitive Inhibition

Same enzyme for both Saturated Fatty Acid (BAD) and Unsaturated Fatty Acid (GOOD)... meaning, that if you want to stop BAD fats from destroying Myelin cover on nerves, then you have to keep enzyme busy/distracted with GOOD fats. The enzyme will focus on GOOD fats then and levels of BAD fats will drop because enzyme is no longer focused on them!

Lorenzo's Oil

4 parts Oleic Fatty Acid...


not effective alone.



1 part Erucic Fatty Acid...


Toxic in larger doses.



Combined though, the levels of BAD fatty acids drop. Combination was effective when just olive oil wasn't b/c both alone uneffective, but as a pair, in right doses, fantastic as long as given before ALD symptoms occur.

Resisting of Odone's Treatment Ideas

Both doctors and other parents reisted Lorenzo's Oil b/c it wasn't properly tested yet... didn't want to give a false hope... and b/c doctor said, "I am responsible for all the children's lives, not just yours."

Paper Clips and The Dream

Four connections/bonds for every 'C.'


H's and C's.


Single Bond=BAD.


Double Bond=GOOD.


Normal paper clips were representative of Good Fats and Triangle paper clips represented the Bad Fats.



Augusto had dream of Lorenzo putting both paper clips together on same chain! Thus, Augusto woke up and had an epiphany... both Fats, paper clip types, use the same Enzyme!!!!! So you keep enzyme busy with Good Fats, Normal paper clips, then Bad ones won't get to build up!!! Do all DOUBLE BONDS... a 'C' to a 'C and H' and a DOUBLE DOND to another 'C.'



Always 4 bonds.

More Bang For Your Buck

This refers to the position that 'Big Killers' like Heart-Disease and Cancer should get more research funding than diseases that effect a small number of the population.



This is not moral or ethical or whatever, but it is wisest because you can help more people in the long run with same dollar amount. Only so many dollars in the world, so you have to try to save the most possible people with those limited dollars.

Polish Biochemist

Researched Rats.


Found that Oleic Fatty Acid decreases Saturated Fats (Bad Fats).



Mikela came across this Article by accident and changed the course of ALD treatment and the rest is history!!



Other accidents in science. Example...



It all started with a mold that developed on a staphylococcus culture plate!

Erucic Acid

A monounsaturated omega-9 fatty acid.


Found in the Wallflower Seed and Mustard Oil and Rapeseed Oil.


Used in part in Lorenzo's Oil, but doctors, due to animal studies, believed it to be poisonous in too large of doses.

The 'Myelin Project'

The University of Wisconsin was researching myelin. Myelin Project which has been funded by the national government to find a way to restore the myelin sheath which surrounds nerve cells. If the myelin can be restored, patients like Lorenzo can lead a normal life. Expirement involved injection of stem cells to rebuild Myelin Sheath of nerves.