Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/104

Click to flip

104 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Prenatal development is divided into ____ main periods. The first two weeks of development are called the ___period;from the ___week throught the ___week is known as the ___period; and from this point until birth is the ___ period. Some developmentalist prefer to divide pregnancu into 3month periods called _____.
three
germinal
eighth
embryonic
fetal
trimesters
At about the ___-celled stage, clusters of cells begin to take on distinct traits. The first clear sign of this process, called ____,occurs about ___ weeks after conception, when the multiplying cells seperate into outer cells that will become the ___ and inner cells that will become the ____.
eight
differentiation
one
placenra
embryo
The next signaficant event is the burrowing of the outer cells of the organism into the lining of the uterus, a process called ___. This process ___(is/is not) automatic.
inplantation
is not
At the beginning of the period of the embryo, a thin line down the middle of the devoping individual forms a structure that will become the ____ ____, which will develop into the ___ ___ ___.
neutral tube
central nervous system
Major features of development during the 2nd month
Upper arms
then forearms
palms and webbed fingers appear
Legs feet and webbed toes follow
At 8 weeks the embryos head is more rounded and the facial features are fully formed. The fingers and toes are separate
8 weeks after conceptionm the embryo weighs about ___ and is about ____ in length. The organism now becomes know as the ____.
1/30 ounce(1 gram)
1 inch (2.5 centimeters)
fetus
The genital oragns are fully formed by week ____. If the fetus has a ____chromosome, the SRY gene on this chromosome sends a signal that triggers development of the ___(male/female) sex organs. Without that gene, no signal is sent and the fetus begins to develop ___(male/female) sex organs.
12
y
male
female
By the end of the ___month, the fetus is fully formed, weighs approximately ____, and is about ___ long. These figures ___(vary/do not vary) from fetus to fetus.
third
3 ounces (87 grams)
3 inches (7.5 centimeters
vary
During the fourth fifth and six months the brain increases in size by a factor of ____. This neurological maturation is essential to the regulation of such basic body functions as ____and ____. The brain develops new neutrons in a process called ____ and new connections between them in a process called ____. These developments occur during the ____ trimester.
six
breathing
sucking
neurogenesis
synaptogenesis
middle
By full term, brain growth is so extensive that the brains advanced outer areas, called the ____, must ____ in order to fit into the skull.
cortex
fold into layers
The age at waht a fetus has at least some of chance of surviving outside the uterus is called the ___ ___ ___, which occurs ____weeks after conception.
age of viability
22
At about __ weeks after conception, brain wave patterns begin to resemble the ___-___ cycles of a newborn
28
wake-sleep
A 28 week old fetus typically weighs about ___and has more than a ___percent chance of survival
3 pounds
95
Two crucial aspects of development in the last month of prenatal life are maturation of the ___and ___ systems
respiratory and cardiovascular
beginning at ___(what week?) the fetus hears many sounds, as evidenced by increased fetal ___ and ___ ___ inrespose to noise.
28 weeks
heart beat
body movement
(text and Table 4.3) The average newborn weighs ____.
7 1/2 pounds (2400 grams)
The scientific study of birth defects is called ____. Harmful agents that can cause birth defects, called ____, include ______.
teratology
teratogens, virues, drugs, chemicals, pollutants, stressors, and malnutrtion
Substances that impair the childs action and intellect by harming the brain are called ___ ____. Approximately ___percent of all fetues are born with major structural amolalies, and ___ percent with behavior difficulties related to prenatal damage.
behavioral teratogens
3
10 to 20
Teratology is a science of ___ ____, which attempts to evaluate the that can make prebatal harm more or less likely to occur.
risk analysis
Three crucial factors that determine whether a specific teratogen will cause harm, and of what nature, are the ___of exposure, the ___ of exposure , and thr deveolping orgasniams ____ to damage from the the substance
timing
amount
genetic vunerability
The time when a particular part of the body is most susicipltible to teratogenic damage is called its ___ ___. For physical structure and form, this is the entire period of the ____. However, for ___ teratogens, the entire prenal period is critical
critical period
embryo
behavioral
Some teratogens have a ___ efect - that is, the substances are harmless until exposure reaches a certain freq or amount. However, the ___ of some teratogens when taken together may make them more harmful at lower dosage levels tha when taken seperately.
threshold
interaction
Genetic suseptibilities to the prenatal effects of alcohol andd to certain birth disorders, such as cleft palte, may involve defective ____.
enzymes
When the mother to be's diet is deficient in ___ ___, neutal-tube defects such as ___ ___ or ___ may result.
folic acid
spina bifida
anencephally
Genetic vunerability is also related to the sex of the deveolping organism. Generally ___(male/female) embryos and fetues are more vunerable to teratogens. This sex not only has a higher rate of teratogenic birth defects and later behavioral problems, but also higherr rate of ___ ___, and older members of this sex have more ___ ____.
male
spontaneous abortions
learning disabilities
( changing policy) It was was believed that a pregnant woman's ____ prevented all harmful substances from reaching the fetus. This belief was proven wrong, when an epidimic of ____ led to an increase in babies who were born ____. and an increase in newborns with deformed ___ was traced to maternal use of the drug ____.
placenta
rubella
deaf
limbs
thalidomide
Changing policy The most devastating viral teratogen is the ___ ___ ____, which gradually overwelms the bodys ___ ___ and leads to ___. Babies who are infected with this virus usually die by age ____.
human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)
immune system
AIDS
5
Changing policy The most common teratogen in developed nations is _____. High doses of this teratogen cause ___ ___ ___, and less intense doses cause ___ ___ __. The damge is increased when alcohol is combines with other ___ ____.
alcohol
fetal alcohol syndrome
fetal alcohol effects
psychoactive drugs
Changing policy Pregnant women who are HIV positive can reduce the risk of transmitting the virus to the their newborns by given birth by ___ ____, by not ___-____, and by taking ___ ____
c section
breast feeding
antiretroviral drugs
3 reasons why almost a million HIV positive children cont to be born each year
women and their medical provides might not be aware that they have the virus
Drugs for treating the infection is very expensive
womans sociocultural context prevents her from admitting she has the disease
New borns who wiegh less than ____ are classified as ___-___ babies. Below 3 pounds they are called ___-___-___ babies; at less than 2 pounds they are ____-___-___ babies. Worldwide, rates of this condition ____(vary/do not vary) from nation to nation.
5 1/2 pounds (2500 grams
low birth weight
very low birth weight
extremely low birth weight
babies who are born 3 or more weeks early are called _____.
preterm
Infants who weigh substanially less than they should, given how much time has passed since conception, are called ____ ____ ____ ____.
small for gestational age
About 25 percent of all low birth weight births in the US are linked to maternal use of _____.
tobacco
Two other common reasons for low be=irthweight are maternal ___ and ____
illness
malnutition
At about 266th day, the fetal brain signals the release of certain ____ into the mothers bloodstream, which trigger her ___ ___ to contract and relax. The normal birth process begins when these contractions become regular. The average length of labor is ___hours for first births and ____ hours for subsequent births.
hormones
uterine muscles
eight
three
The newborn is usually rated on the ___ ____, which assigns a score of 0,1, or 2 to each of the following five characteristics:___ ___ ____ ____ _____. A score of below ____ indicates that the newborn is in critical condition and requires immediate attention; if the score is ____ or better, all is well. This rating is made twice, at ____ minutes after birth, and again at ____ mintutes.
Apgar scale
heart rate
breathing
muscle tone
color
reflexes
4
7
one
five
The birth experience is influenced by several factors, including ______________.
the parents preparation for birth
the physical and emotional support provided by birth attendants
the position and size of the fetus
the practices of the mothers culture
In about 22 percent of US births, a surgical procedure called a ___ ____ is performed.
c section
An increasing number of hospital deliveries occur in the ___ ____. An even more family-oriented environment is the ___ ____> In addition, many North American mothers today use a professional birth coach, or ____, to asst them.
labor room
birthing center
doula
The disorder ____ ___, which affects motor centers in the brain, often result from ___vunerability, worsened by exposure to ____ and episodes of ____, a temperorary lack of ____during birth.
cerebral palsy
genetic
teratogens
anocia oxygen
Another complication is an infection called ___ ____ ___, which is often fatal to newborns if not quickly treated with ____.
Group B strept
antibiotics
Because they are often confined to ICU or hooked up to medical machinary, low birth weight babaies may be deprived of normal kinds of stimulation such as _____
rocking(or regular handling)
Providing extra soothing stimulation to vulnerable infants in the hospital ___(does/does not)aid in weight gain and ____(does/does not) increase overall alertness.One example of this is ___ ____, in which mothers of low-birth weight infants spend extra time holding their infants.
does
does
kangaroo care
Among the minor developmental problems that acompany preterm birth are being late to _________. High risk infants are often more___, less____ and slower to ____.
smile
hold a bottle
and to communicate
distractible
pbedient
talk
The deicits to low birth birthweight usually ___(can/cannot) be overcome.
can
The rate of LBW births among women born in Mexico and now living in the US is ____(higher/lower) than those of other americans. This differnece has been attribituted to ___, or the strong ___ ____ that such women experience. Especially inportant is the role played by a supportative ___who can help ____ between the prospective parents.
lower
familia
family support
father
reduce maternal stress and help ensure the future mother is healthy
well nourished and drug free
A crucial factor in birth experience is the formation of strong _____ between the prospective parents.
parental alliance
Some new mothers experience a profound feeling of sadness called ____ _____.
postpardum depression
The term used to describe the close relaionship that begins within the first hours after birth is the ___-___ ___.
parent-infant bond
The thrird through the eighth week after conception is called the
a. embryonic period
b. ovum period
c. fetal period
d. germinal period
a embryoic oeriod
The neutral tube develops into the
a. respiratory system
b. umbilical cord
c. brain and spinal cord
d. circulatory system
c brain and spinal cord
To say that a teratogenhas a "threshold effect" means that it is
a. virtually harmless until exposure reaches a certain level
b. harmful only to low birth weight infants
c. harmful to certain deveolping organs during periods when these organs are develping more rapidly
d. harmful only if the pregnant woman weight does not increase by a certain minimum amount during pregnancey
a virtually harmless until exposure reaches a certain level
By the eighth week after conception, the embryo has almost all the basic organs except the
a. skeleton
b. elbows and knees
c. sex organs
d. fingers and toes
c. sex organs
The most critical factor in attaining the age of viability is development of the
a. placenta
b. eyes
c. brain
d. skeleton
c brain
An inportant nutrient that many women do not get in adequate amounts from the typical diet is
a. vitamin a
b. zinc
c. guamine
d. folic acid
d folic acid
An embryo begins to develop male sex organs if ______, and female sex organs if _____.
a. genes on y chromosome send a signal; no signal is sent from a x chromosome
b. genes on the y chromosome send a signal ;genes on the x chromosome send a signal
c. gens on x chromosome send a signal;no signal is sent from a x chromosome
d. genes on x chromosome send a signal;signals on the y chromosome send a signal
a. genes on the y chromosome send a signal;no signal is sent from the an x chromosome
A teratogen
a. cannot cross the placenta during period of the embroyo
b. is usually inherited from the mother
c. can be counteracted by good nutrtion most of the time
d. may be a virus, a drug, a chemical. radiation, or environmental pollutants
d may be a virus, a drug, a chemical, radiation, or environmental pollutants
Changing policy Among the characteristics of babies born with fetal alcohol synddrome are
a. slowed physical growth and behavior problems
b. addiction to aocohol and methadone
c. defromed arms and legs
d. blindness
a. slowed physical growth and behavior problems
The birth process begins
a. when the fetus moves in the right position
b. when the uterus begins to contract at regular intervals to push the fetus out
c. about 8 hours (in the case of firstborns) after the uterus begins to contract at regular intervals
d. when the babys head appears at the opening of the vagina
b when the uterus begins to contract at regulare intervals
The Apgar scale is administered
a. only if the newborn is in obvious distress
b. once just after birth
c. twice, one minute and five minutes after birth
d. repeatedly during the newborns first hours
c. twice, one minute and five minutes after birth
Most newborns weigh about
a. 5 pounds
b. 6 pounds
c. 7 1/2 pounds
d. 8 1/2 pounds
c. 7 1/2 pounds
Low birth weight babies born near the due date but weighing substantially less they should
a. are classified as preterm
b. are called small for gestational age
c. usually have no sex organs
d. show many signs of inmatureity
b are called small for gestational age
Approximately one out every four low births in the US is caused by
a. alcohol
b. tobacco
c. crack cocaine
d. household chemicals
b. tobacco
Term for the period which a deveolping babys body parts are most susceptible to damage
critical period
external agents and conditions that can damage the developing organism
teratogens
the age when viabilty is attained
fetal period
the precurser of the central nervous system
neural tube
lack of oxygen, which if prolonged during birth process may lead to brain damage
anoxia
characterized by abnormal facial characteristics, slowed growth, behavior problems, and mental retardation
fetal alcohol syndrome
a virus that gradually overwhelms the embroyo and fetus
HIV
the life giving organ that nourishes the embryo and fetus
placenta
when inplantation occurs
germinal period
the prenatal period when all major body structures begin to form
embryoic period
a baby born 3 or more weeks early
preterm
Which of teh following causes of infant mortality in the US has been increasing in recent years?
a. congential abnormalities
b. respiratory distress
c. low birthweight
d. all of the above
c low birthweight
In order, the correct sequence of prenatal stages of developement is
a. embryo, germinal, fetus
b. germinal, fetus, embryo
c. germinal, embryo, fetus
d. ovum, fetus, embryo
c. germinal, embryo, fetus
Monika is preparing for the birth of her first child. If all proceeds normally, she can expect her labor will last about
a. three hours
b. eight hours
c. ten hours
d. twelve hours
b eight hours
Table 4.4 Tetracycline and retinoic acid
a. can be harmful to human fetus
b. have been proven safe for pregnant women after the embroyonic period
c. will prevent spontaneous abortions
d. are safe if used befor the fetal period
a can be harmful to the human fetus
The teratogen that, if not prevented by immunization, could cause deafness, blindness, and brain damge to fetus
a. rubella (german meascles)
b. anoxiz
c. AIDS
d. neural tube defect
a rubella ( german measles)
Kangaroo care refers to
a. the rigid attachmen formed between mothers and offsprings in animal kingdom
b. the fragmented care that the children of single parents revieve
c. a program of increased involvement by mothers of low birthweight infants
d. none of the above
c. a program of increased involvement by mothers of low birth weight infants
Among the characteristics rated on the Apgar scale are
a shape of the newborns head and nose
b. presence of body hair
c. interactive behaviors
d. muscle tone and color
d muscle tone and color
A newborn is classified as low birthweight if he weighs less than
a. 7 pounds
b. 6 pounds
c.5 1/2 pounds
d. 4 pounds
c 5 1/2 pounds
The most critical problem for preterm babaies is
a. immaturity of the sex organs - for example, undescended testicles
b. spitting up or hiccupping
c. infection for IV feeding
d. breathing difficulties
d breathing difficulties
Changing policy The most common teratogen in developed nations is
a. nicotine
b. alcohol
c. pesticide exposure
d. caffiene
a alcohol
Neurogenesis refers to the process by which
a. the fetal brain develops new neurons
b. new connections between neurons develop
c. the neyral tube forms during the middle trimester
d. the cortex folds into layers in order to fit into the skull
a the fetal brain develops new neurons
Which apgar score indicates that a newborn is in normal health
a 4
b.5
c.6
d.7
d 7
Synaptogenesis refers to the process by which
a. fetal brain develops new neurons
b. new connections between neurons develop
c. the neural tube forms during the middle trimester
d. the cortex folds into layers in order to fir into the skull
b new connections between neurons develop
When ther is a strong parental alliance
a. mother and father cooperate because of their mutual commitmen tto their children
b. the parents agree to support each other in their shared parental roles
c. children are likely to thrive
d. all of the above are true
d all is true
The critical period for preventing physical defects appears to be the
a. zygote period
b. embryonic period
c. fetal period
d. entire pregnancy
b embryoic period
Changing policy Babies born to mothers who are powerfully addicted to a psychoactive drug are most likely to suffer from
a. structural problems
b. behavioral problems
c. both a and b
d. neither a nor b
c both a and b
I am 1 inch long and 1 gram in weight. I have all the basic organs (except sex organs) and features of a human being. What am I?
a. zygote
b embryo
c.fetus
d. ovum
b embryo
Karen and BRad report to their neighbors that, 5 weeks after conception, a sonogram of their child- to-be revealed female sex organs. The neighbors are skeptical of their statement because:
a. sonoframs are never admisnistered before the nineth week
b. sonograms only reveal the presence or absence of male sex organs
c. the fetus does not begin to develop female sex organs until about the eighth week
d. it is impossible to determine that a woman is pregnant until 6 weeks after conception
c. the fetus does not begin to develop female sex organs until about the eighth week
5 year old Benjamin can not sit quietly and concentrate on a task for more than a minute at a time. Dr Simmons, who is a teratologist, suspects that Benjamin may have been exposed to ____ during prenatal devolpment
a. HIV
b. a behavior teratogen
c. rubella
d. lead
b a behavior teratogen
Sylvia and Stan who are British descent , are hoping to have a child. Doctor Caruthers asks for a complete nutritional history and is particular concerned when she discovers that Sylvia may have a deficiency of folic acid in her diet. Doctor Caruthers is probabled worried about the risk of ____ in the couples offspring
a. FAS
b. brain damage
c. neural tube defects
d. FAE
c neural tube defects
Three year old Kenny was born underweight and premature. Today, he is small for his age and he doctor suspects that
a. Kenny is a victim of fetal alcohol syndrome
b.Kenny suffers from fetal alcohol effects
c. Kennys mother smoked heavily during pregnancy
d. Jennys mother used cocaine during her pregnancy
c, Kennys mother smoked heavily during her pregnancy
Which of teh following is an example of an interaction effect?
a. some teratogens are virually harmless until exposure reaches a certain level
b. Matternal use of alcohol and tobacco together does more harm to the developing fetus than either teratogen would do alone
c. Some teratogens cause damage only on specific days during prenatal devoplment
d. All of the above are examples of interaction effects
b. Maternal use of alcohol and tobacco together does more harm than either one would do alone
Fetal alcohol syndrome is commonin newborns whose mothers were heavy drinkers during pregnancy, wheras newborns whose mothers were moderate drinkers may suffer fetal alcohol effects. This finding shows that to assess and undersand risk we must know:
a. the kind of alcoholic beverages (for example beer, wine. whiskey)b. the level of exposure to the teratogen


c. whether the substance really is a teratogen
d. the timing of exposure to the teratogen
b the level of exposure to the teratogen
Your sister and brother in law, who are about to adopt a 1 year old, are worried that the child will never bond with them. What advice should you offer?
a. Tell them, that unfortuneately this is tru they would be better off waiting for a younger child who has not yet bonded
b. Tell them that, although the first year is a biologically determined critial period for attachment. there is a 50-50 chance that the child will bond with them
c. Tell them that bonding is long term process between parent and child that is determined by the nature of interaction throughout infancy, childhood, and beyond
d. tell them that, if the child is female, ther is a good chance that she will bond with them, even at this late stage
c. tell them that bonding is a long-term process between parent and child that is determined by the nature od interaction throughout infancy,childhood and beyond
Which of the following newborns would be most likely to have problems in body structure and functioning?
a. Anton, whose Abpgar is 6
b. Debora, whose Apgar is 7
c. Shelia whose Apgar is 3
d. Simon whose Apgar is 5
c Shelia whose Apgar is 3
At birth, Clarence was clasified as small for gestation age. It is like that Clarence
a. was born in a rural hospital
b. suffered several months of prenatal malnutrtion
c. was born in a large city hospital
d. comes with a family with a history of such births
b. suffered several months of prenatal malnutrtition
Of the folowing, who is most likely to give birth to a low birthweight child?
a. 21 year old Janice who was herself a low weight birth baby
b. 25 year old May Ling who gained 25 pounds during her pregnancy
c. 16 year old Donna, who diets freq despite being underweight
d. 30 year old Maria who has already given birth to 4 children
c. 16 year old Donna, who diets freq despite being underweight
An infant born 266 days after conception, weighing 4 pounds, would be designated a ____ infant
a. preterm
b.low birthweight
c. small for gestational age
d. b&C
d b&c at 266 days this baby is full term
The five characteristics evaluated by the apgar scale are
a. heart rate, length,weight,muscle etone, and color
b. orientation,muscle tone, reflexes, interaction, and responses to stress
c. reflexes, breathing, muscle tone, heart rate and color
d. pupillary response, heart rate, relex irritability, alertness and breathing
c reflexes, breathing muscletone, heart rate, and color