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100 Cards in this Set

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What piece of information was Wegener missing to support his hypothesis?
An explanation of how continents could move
Which of the following statements best describes the theory of continental drift?
Over time, the continents change position relative to one another as they move.
According to the continental drift theory, when did Pangaea begin to split apart?
200-225 million years ago
Pangaea split into two smaller super continents. The northern super continent is called ___________.
Laurasia
Pangaea split into two smaller super continents. The southern supercontinent is called _________.
Gondwana
Which came first, the theory of plate tectonics or the theory of continental drift?
continental drift
Which of the following statements best describes the theory of plate tectonics?
The Earth's crust is broken into twelve or more plates that move as they ride atop the molten rock below.
During the Permian period, which of the following current land masses were part of Pangaea?
Africa
Antarctica
Asia
Australia
Europe
India
North America
South America
During the Triassic period, which of the following current land masses were part of Gondwana?
Africa
Antarctica
Australia
India
South America
During the Triassic period, which of the following current land masses were part of Laurasia?
Asia
Europe
North America
What causes an earthquake to occur at a transform boundary?
The two sliding plates build up tension. The tension is released suddenly.
At a convergent boundary, if one plate has land at the edge, what happens to the ocean plate?
The ocean plate slides under the land plate.
What happens to plates at transform boundaries?
Two plates slide against one another.
What happens to plates at the divergent boundaries?
Two plates move apart and magma fills in the gap forming a new ocean floor.
What happens at collisional boundaries when two plates with land masses meet?
Land masses buckle and hold, forming mountain ranges.
What happens to plates at the convergent boundaries?
One plate slides under the other plate.
Which of the following statements does NOT describe the Siberian traps?
Caused when the Eurasian plate slipped under the North American plate
According to Douglas Erwin, what percentage of all species in the ocean died as a result of the end-Permian mass extinction?
95%
All of these animals were present on land just before the mass extinction event at the end of the Permian except ________
the first dinosaurs
Which of the following is not evidence used by Wegener in his hypothesis of continental drift?
Oceanic and continental plates
What effect did the Siberian traps have on ocean chemistry?
The oceans warmed up and lost their oxygen.
How could microbes similar to the one found in the deep water of Green Lakes, NY have caused the end-Permian extinction?
If they produced too much hydrogen sulfide gas, it would have killed aquatic life in the oceans and life on land when it bubbled out of the water.
The Siberian traps were active during which geological period?
Permian
What evidence for this hypothesis was found when the Nevada rocks were analyzed?
Found evidence that the deep ocean waters had lost their oxygen
Trace the steps between Siberian traps and mass extinction, starting with step 1 and ending with mass extinction.
1- Volcanoes spewed out carbon dioxide, which trapped heat in the atmosphere
2- this caused global warming
3- as the oceans warmed up, they lost their oxygen
4- nasty bacteria took over, burping out lots of poisonous gases into the atmosphere
Which statements describes the concept of an "evolutionary arms race" between garter snakes and newts?
As the newts become more toxic, the snakes become resistant to the toxins. As the snakes become more resistant, the newts evolve to become more toxic.
What is the affect of the unusual adaptation of the rough skinned newt on its main predator?
The snakes are slowed down by the toxins in their prey.
What is the evolutionary "cost" to a snake that is highly resistant to the newts?
Resistant snakes are slower and more vulnerable to their own predators.
What is unusual about the rough skinned newt?
Most poisonous animal in the world in terms of toxin production.
What is responsible for the unusual adaptation of the rough newt?
Their only predator is resistant to their toxin,
How old is the partnership between leaf cutter ants and their fungus?
50-60 million years
How are the fungal gardens examples of an "evolutionary arms race"?
As soon as the mold becomes resistant to an antibiotic, the bacteria evolve a new antibiotic.
What is the white waxy coating found on the body of some ants?
tangled mats of bacteria
What does the fungus provide to the ants?
The fungus provides the ants with food
What type of relationship is involved between the leaf cutter ants and the jungles plants that produce leaves?
predator-prey
What do the ants give to the fungus?
chewed up leaves
What type of relationship is involved between the leaf cutter ants and their fungus?
mutualist-mutualist
Which hasn't the mold evolved resistance to antibiotics, like we are seeing today in drug resistant strains of bacteria?
The bacteria are evolving as fast as the mold.
What does the white waxy coating produce that can kill the mold?
antibiotics
How do most tropical plants defend themselves?
The plants produce toxic chemicals in their leaves.
What type of relationship is involved between the mold and the fungus?
parasite-host
What kind of disease can infect the fungus gardens?
an aggressive mold
Discuss the different lifestyle and adaptations that allow these marsupials to live in different habitats and eat different foods. Red Kangaroos
the largest family of kangaroos and inhabit the dry interior of Australia, they take advantage of shade in the hot parts of the day and feed in the cooler early mornings and early evenings, they use their large tail as a fifth leg, they apply saliva to their arms to keep them cool
Discuss the different lifestyle and adaptations that allow these marsupials to live in different habitats and eat different foods. Water Opossum
lives in the Amazon and only hunts at night, it feeds off fish and crustaceans, developed a fur coat that is so thick water is unable to reach the skin and being able to close off its pouch so that the baby does not drown while the mother is fishing for food
Define bio geography.
study of how biodiversity is spread around the world
Define vicariance.
species become separated from each other when geographical barriers emerge
Define dispersal.
when species themselves spread away from their place of origin
Describe the current distribution of marsupial species.
found on Australia and surrounding islands, originally from China
Explain why the highest marsupial biodiversity is found in Australia.
Australia drifted into isolation for over 40 million years, abundant fossils date back to about 25 million years ago at which point all mammals in Australia were marsupials
Briefly explain why some birds became flightless.
the islands lacked large predators and instead of investing energy in wings, the birds had the greatest reproductive success were the ones that were better at getting energy from the food
What happened to the marsupials of Antarctica after the southern super continent broke apart?
the inhabitants died out
Most of the marsupials of South/Central America are mostly ___________.
water opossum
Most live in __________, have few _______, and have a board ____________.
trees, specializations, diet
How does the pouch of South American marsupials differ from the pouch of Australian marsupials?
their young can cling well unprotected from the pouch in south America
Identify the factors that have caused species extinctions over the last few hundred years.
- hunting animals for sports
- into of rats
- habitat loss
- isolated populations
Explain the relationship between latitude and species diversity.
new species can evolve more rapidly in the tropics and they can accumulate to greater numbers because extinction rate is lower
Explain what an adaptive radiation is.
a burst of diversification is accompanied by dramatic morphological evolution
Describe at least three examples of adaptive radiation.
1) Darwin's finches - evolved distinctive beaks and behaviors that allowed them to feed on cactus, crack nuts
2) cichlid fishes - crusing molluskes, scraping algae and eating other cichilds
Unlike Western beavers, insects have increased in species number over time. What might explain this difference?
good at withstanding mass extinctions, ability to eat plants gives them huge amounts of food, wings allowed insects to disperse much farther than arthropods
Describe the physical changes in the Earth that may have sparked the Cambrian species expansion.
retreat of the glaciers and the rise of oxygen in the ocean
What other two hypotheses have been proposed as factors that might have caused the Cambrian species expansion?
- evolution of new predators changed the fitness landscape
- animal toolkit allowed animals to evolve from limited # of ediacaran forms
Which has claimed more total species over time?
background
During which one does the highest rate of extinction occur?
80%
Describe some of the factors that might determine whether a species survives a
mass extinction or not.
habitat and climate change
How has climate change affected speciation rates?
diversity goes down when climate has been warm and higher when climate has been cold
How has climate change affected the extinction rates?
going up rather than the speciation rate going down
Describe the evidence that supports an asteroid impact as a major factor in the mass extinction at the end of the Cretaceous period.
rocks, rich in iridiumm far higher than average were found in Italy. In 1991, geologists in Mexico discovered a 110 ft wide crater along the coast
What was the effect of the end-Cretaceous extinction on the relative diversity of mammals and reptiles on the earth?
mammals came to occupy many of their niches evolving into carnivores and herbivores, mammals evolved into whales, taking the place of marine reptiles
Describe the history of birds species extinctions and predictions for future bird extinctions.
birds are disappearing 100x faster and will only accelerate in the coming decades, their populations are vanishing due to hunting and loss of habitat
Explain the reasons for the current increase in species extinction rate.
the release of carbon dioxide from fossil fuels, carbon dioxide is making ocean's water more acidic, carbon dioxide warms the atmosphere by trapping heat from the sun
Explain how climate change affected the white lemuroid possum.
it had only been living on mountainsides that were 1000 meters and higher, biologists can not find a single possum and fear they are extinct due to the manmade global warming
Describe how human actions affected the bird populations of Guam.
tree snakes were brought over by accident on boats and the birds had no predators so they didn't have any defense with no birds insects and spiders have taken over
Describe how human actions have affected the kaka of New Zealand.
European wasps is eating all the honey due, kakas use the honey to get in the mood for mating.
Describe how human actions affected the passenger pigeons of North America.
they were all hunted and went extinct, there was so many pigeons that people considered them pests, hunting and changes to the landscape
Describe the interaction between the Lissopimpla excelsa wasp and the tongue orchid.
orchids deceive male wasps into thinking that they are female wasps, male tries to mate and becomes covered in pollen and fertilizers other flowers
What is a pheromone?
chemicals females wasps produce
How do dupe wasps use phermomones?
To find a mate
What happens when male dupe wasps mistake orchid plants for female wasps?
he finds that his body fits snugly against it and is so fooled that it even extends pincers called genital clasps into the flower
In the relationship between the tongue orchid and the dupe wasp, which species benefits?
orchid (positive)
In the relationship between the tongue orchid and the dupe wasp, which species is harmed?
wasps (negative)
In what way is the biological environment different form the physical environment?
is that it can also evolve
Define coevolution.
as species adapts to its ecological partners, its partners can adapt to it as well, two species may become intimately linked by their evolutionary change in interacting species
A predator reduces the fitness of _______ organism. A parasite reduces the fitness of a ______ organism.
prey's; host's
Is the caterpillar described in the textbook a predator, parasite or deceiver?
predator - it eats the leaves of a tree and drastically reduce the amount of energy the trees capture form sunlight
What organism is the host for the barnacle Sacculine? How specifically does Sacculine affect its host?
crabs - the barnacle burrows into the crab;s body and grows tendrils that extend through its host's tissues, it destroys the host sexual organs so it can no longer reproduce
Describe two examples of commensalism.
remoras - clamp onto sharks or other fish just to catch a ride, when the host finds its prey its remora lets go, after the kill the remora eat the leftovers

mosquito larvae - feed on decaying bodies of dead animals
Explain why most plants are mutalists with their pollinators.
in exchange for spreading their pollen, the plants make nectar for birds or insects to drink
Other than pollination, how do animals such as birds and bats help plants? How do these animals benefit?
they eat the fruits and digest the seeds through feces traveling long distances they can spread plant over a wide area
Describe the relationship between each of the following, plants and mycorrhizal fungi.
fungi break down nutrients that plants cannot pumping them into the roots to help the plants grow, plants pump carbon out of their roots to fungi
Describe the relationship between each of the following, plants and nitrogen fixing bacteria.
bacteria converts nitrogen from the atmosphere into a form plants can use and in turn plants provide steady supply of nutrients
Describe the relationship between each of the following, humans and gut bacteria.
bacteria produce vitamins, amino acids and other nutrients for us and in turn we provide the microbes warm, stable home and steady supply of food
How does the moth increase the yucca plant's fitness?
The moth is able to increase the plants fitness because it is able to raise the reproduction level of the yucca flower, it gains pollen and flies to another flower
How does the moth decrease the plant's fitness?
when the moth's eggs hatch the larvae feed on the plant
Explain how the evolutionary trees of gophers and lice mirror one another.
they see mirror symmetry, suggest that when a population of gophers became isloated from the rest of its species and evolved into a new species its lice became a new species as well
If Baumannia and Sulcia were removed from their host, the sharpshooter, would they be able to survive on their own?
no
Explain how natural selection is acting on the milkweed plant and caterpillars that eat it.
plant grows hairs that make it difficult for the insects to reach down, the plant will produce a cocktail of toxic molecules that can cause the caterpillars harm, they can disarm the toxins by cutting holes in the vessels it flows from
How does the coevolutionary arms race between tongue orchids and dupe wasps affection evolution in the wasps and the orchids?
male wasps learn to avoid the flowers which means the males are not wasting sperm which will lead to a higher production, the selection for wasps is less easily fooled
Explain how the divergence of the month genus Tegeticula into tow species is driving possible speciation in Joshua trees in the Mojave desert.
Joshua trees evolved canals in their flowers to match the length of the tongues of their own species of yucca moth, if the 2 continue there will be less opportunity for pollen to move form population to population
Describe some of the problems that climate change may cause in coevoluted plants and insect species.
rising temperatures in which species can survive, plants and animals are becoming active earlier each spring
What abilities or characteristics could make a plant or insect species more likely to survive climate change?
predicted that 17-50% of all pollinators will face a disrupted food supply, in some cases some plants will flower too early for the insects and running out of nectar while they still need to eat, some plants will survive because they can be pollinated by many different insects while some insects will be able to shift to new flowers