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26 Cards in this Set

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Neisseria meningitidis

a cause of meningitis

Meningitis

inflammation of the meninges

what is meningitis usually caused by?



micro-organisms infecting the cerebral spinal fluid

meninges

coverings of the brain and spinal chord; to protect and enclose

neisseria meningitidis morphology

gram negative diplococcus, has a capsule

bacterial serotype

subtypes

how many total serotypes are there for neisseria meningitidis? how many and which ones are responsible for most epidemics?

12. 4; A,B,C, and W-135

which serotypes are most common in the Americas and Africa

Africa- serotype A


Americas- serotype B

neisseria meningitidis only affects..

humans

neisseria meningitidis pathogenecity




transmission and range

droplet transimission; cough, sneezes, saliva




range: 1m

neisseria meningitidis pathogenecity




invades?

mucosal membranes and bloodstream



neisseria meningitidis pathogenecity




how does it cause inflammation?

contains "endotoxin" in cell wall called LOS- lypo oligopolysaccharide

neisseria meningitidis pathogenecity




what does LOS do?



endotoxin that activates blood clotting, leads to DIC (dissemenated intravascular coagulation), hemorrhage/ splotches and shock

how does neisseira meningitidis survive?

evades phagocytosis (being eaten) by white blood cells due to presence of capsule

what is neissaria meningitidis soemtimes called?

meningococcus (pl. meningicocci)

meningococcal meningitis

inflammation/ infection of the meninges

meningococcal meningitis




if untreated

death; pressure to brain and influx of inflammatory cells(white blood cells) to cerebral spinal fluid

meningococcal meningitis




if treated

if treated early, good prognosis

meningococcal meningitis




symptoms

headache, stiff neck, nausea, sore throat, coma, petichiae (splotches) photosensitivity

meningococcal sepsis

replication of bacteria in the bloodstream


dissemminated infection, can occur quickly

meningococcal sepsis




morhoplogy

gram negative sepsis

meningococcal sepsis




results; how long for death?



1. may need amputation


2. death if untreated , or if treated too late; death in 4 hrs

meningococcal sepsis




symptoms

fever, purpura/petichiae, shock, hemorrhage, DIC, internal organ meltdown

Vaccines: Polysaccharide

- antibodies will be made to capsule


- effective against 4 types (A,C,Y,W-135)


- 90% protection for 5 yrs


- not for pediatric patients, less than 2yrs old

Vaccines: Conjugated

polysaccharide combined with a protein




good for kids under 2 yrs and immunosuppressed people

Vaccines: Type B

Based on proteins in cell wall not the capsule




50-605 effective