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119 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Paved vehicular circulation (parking, drives - not the entry- , loading spaces etc.) should be at least ___ from any street right-of-way (property line along a street), and at least ___ from any other property line.

4.5m (15')

3.0m (10')

All buildings shall be set back at least ___ from any street right-of-way (property line along a street), and at least ___ from all other property lines.

7.5m (25')

4.5m (15')

All development requiring site disturbance shall be set back at least ___ from any designated stream edge or other water body. What are the exemptions?

15m (50')

Activities that require direct water access are permitted (boat docks, boat ramps, etc.)

All development requiring site disturbance shall be set back at least ___ from the edge of any designated wetland.

30m (100')

What is not permitted within a floodplain?

Enclosed structures and their appurtenances.

Define incompatible use.

An incompatible use is where there is proposed commercial and an adjacent parcel zoned residential. Institutional used such as schools, libraries, churches, hospitals and daycare facilities are exempt.

There shall be a ___ setback provided from any property line where there is an incompatible use.

7.5m (25')

The area within an incompatible use setback shall not be utilized for what?

Structures, roads, and parking areas or for any active recreation purpose such as tennis courts, swimming pools, playgrounds or uses of a similar nature.

There shall be a ___ clear zone, free of obstructions, around active recreational uses such as football, soccer, baseball, volleyball, basketball or uses of a similar nature.

9m (30')

What should not be located within an Active Recreation Setback?

Pedestrian or vehicular circulation.

(unless providing direct access to the recreation use).

When are guardrails required?

On retaining walls where differences in grade level on either side of the wall are in excess of 0.75m (2.5') and are located closer than 1.0m (3') to a walk, path, parking lot or driveway on the high side.

How tall should guardrails be?

Minimum of 1.1m (42") in height measured from the leading edge of a stair tread or adjacent surface.

Open guardrails must have what?

Balusters or other construction such that a sphere with a diameter of 100mm (4") cannot pass through.

Which way should a baseball/softball field be oriented?

East-northeast from home plate to centre field.

Which was should a football/soccer field be oriented?

Long axis north-south

Which way should a tennis/basketball/volleyball court be oriented?

Long axis north-south

Which way should passive and active solar systems be located?

South-southeast to South-southwest

What is the maximum length for a cul-de-sac?

240m (800')

Parking shall not back in what?

Primary circulation or entrances.

Vehicular circulation used solely for ____________ is not considered primary circulation.

Parking lot ingress/egress.

Vehicular circulation entrances must be directly aligned or offset a minimum of ___.

23m (75')

Two-way vehicular circulation shall be a minimum of ___.

8.0m (26')

One-way vehicular circulation shall be a minimum of ___.

3.3m (11')

The minimum inside turning radius for automobiles shall be ___.

5.5m (18')

The minimum inside turning radius for large vehicles (such as trucks, buses, and emergency vehicles) shall be ___.

9.1m (30')

The dimension for a standard parking space shall be __________.

2.7m x 6.0m (9' x 20')

The minimum aisle width for a parking lot shall be ___.

6.0m (20')

Parallel parking spaces shall have a minimum length of ___ and a minimum width of ___.

Length 6.7m (22')

2.7m (9')

Open off-street parking areas with more than 40 spaces shall have a maximum of ___ contiguous spaces without an island. Minimum width of a parking island shall be ___.

Max 10 spaces

2.7m (9') wide island

Parking areas must be graded at a slope not to exceed ___.


What is not permitted in parking area design?

Dead end parking areas.

The dimension of a standard bus loading/unloading space shall be _________.

3.6m x 14m (12' x 45')

For all uses with a drive-up window (restaurants, banks, etc) and for all uses involving customers waiting in line while in their vehicles (car washes, fast-food, etc), in addition to the standard parking space requirements, stacking spaces for at least ___ vehicles, including the vehicle at the window, shall be provided for one window or unit. ___ additional spaces shall be provided for each additional window or unit thereafter.

6 stacking units

2 additional stacking units

For all uses with an unattended drop box (mail, book, video, etc), in addition to the standard parking space requirements, stacking spaces for drop boxes shall allow space for ___ vehicles at the box.


Stacking spaces shall be located to allow for traffic movement around stopped vehicles to avoid stacked vehicles overflowing onto primary circulation. The width of a drive through travel lane shall not be less than ___.

3.3m (11')

A stacking space shall have a minimum length of ___.

5.5m (15')

If a drop-off/pick-up area is provide, it shall be designed to allow for what?

The safe movement of vehicles and pedestrians. It shall also be designed to allow for traffic movement around stopped vehicles.

Drop-off/pick-up areas shall have a minimum length of ___ per vehicle and a minimum width of ___.

6.7m (22') per vehicle

2.7m (9')

Service areas shall incorporate a minimum ___ turnaround to accommodate small service vehicles (such as panel vans).

6.0m (20')

If parking spaces are provided for self parking by employees or visitors, or both, then accessible spaces shall be provided in each such parking area in conformance with what standards?

1 space for between 1-25 spots

2 / 26-50

3 / 51-75

4 / 76-100

5 / 101-150

6 / 151-200

7 / 201-300

8 / 301-400

9 / 401-500

2% of total / 501-1000

20 plus 1 for each 100 over 1000

Where should high density uses be located?

Near existing roads for ease of access.

Slopes under 5% make construction_____?


Provide _______ between commercial and residential.


Locate high density uses on slopes of less than ____?


Locate medium density uses on slopes of ___ to ___?


What would be the only reason to removing existing vegetation?

In order to solve an important HSW issue.

What uses should take advantage of street frontage?


What type of drop-off layout impedes traffic flow?


Allow for two-lanes when possible.

What should be controlled in the winter?

Wind (from the East and West)

What should be controlled in the summer?


Winter patio (2 orientation attributes):

- shelter from North, Northeast

- face South

The landform that most greatly affects microclimate is:

slope and aspect/orientation

Drop-off loops should flow:

counter-clockwise to passenger exits to the sidewalk

Intersections should meet at:

90 degrees

What are the measurements of the cone of vision?

Vertical: 30 degrees

Horizontal: 60 degrees

Minimum width for a public stairway?

1.0m (42")

Tread riser ratio (or formula)?

Range for riser height?

2 * Riser+Tread = 660-685mm

114mm - 150mm

General rules for stairs:

- No single steps (at least 2, preferably 3)

- Mark stairs with handrail, lights, stripes, etc.

- Pitch tread 2% downward for drainage

Height between stair landings?

3.0m (10') vertical distance, preferably 1.5m (5')

Minimum widths for one and two-way wheelchair ramps?

One-way: 0.90m (3')

Two-way: 1.50m (5')

Max slope of wheelchair ramps?

Curb cuts max slope?

1:12 (8.44)

1:8 (12%)

Distance between landings on wheelchair ramps?

9.0m (30')

Maximum height of a well before an engineer has to sign off on it?

0.75m (2.5')

Elevation determines what 2 integral things?

1. General drainage pattern and extent of watersheds

2. Viewsheds

What types of soils are to be avoided when siting buildings?

Poorly drained and wetland soils. Soils must have adequate load bearing capacity.

What types of soils are prone to erosion in steep slopes?

Sandy or loose soils.

May require mitigating design measures.

What does the presence of bedrock pose potential limitations for?

Grading, drainage, and for siting structures and ball fields (require drainage).

Considerations for microclimate include the following:

- orientation to sun and shade

- passive solar design

- minimizing heat gain in hot and humid climates

- use evergreen windbreaks, shade trees, and deciduous trees for passive solar design, buffering north winds, or encouraging ventilation

Hydrologic characteristics are important in particular when dealing with:

- depth to groundwater

- drainage

- surface water

- seasonal variations

Sight line triangles at intersections

- 45' x 45' from point where curb lines intersect on roadway

- objects within these triangles, such as shrubs and groundcovers, have height limitations of 2'

When to screen views with planting?

- parking lots and roadways adjacent to residential uses, walks, or trails

- incompatible uses

Max. slope for a walk is ___.


Anything greater is considered a ramp

Minimum width of an accessible route is ___?

3' (0.9m) except at doors

What percentage of public entrances must be accessible?


Including at least one ground floor entrance

Max. slope of a ramp?

12:1 (8.33%)

Where should ramp landings be located?

Top + bottom of ramp

At each ramp run

Landing shall be at least as wide as the run that leads to it.

Landing shall measure at least 5'x5' (1.5mx1.5m)

Ramp landings are required when?

When vertical rise reaches 2.5' (0.8m)

Ramp min. length?

5' (1.5m)

Porosity (of soil)

Amount of pore space in a soil (related to grain size)

Permeability (of soil)

Rate at which water will freely drain through a soil. Ex: clay soils usually have high porosity, but low permeability. May settle considerably when loaded with a foundation, but they have lower compressibility and high strength.

Soil strength

Soil's ability to resist deformation (a function of friction and cohesion).


Measure of the capacity of soil particles to stick together. High cohesion is mostly associated with clays.

Shear strength

Measure of the frictional resistance and cohesion of a soil.

Bulk Density

Refers to the weight per volume of any unit of soil. Rule of thumb: higher bulk density = greater support for foundations

Liquid limit

Moisture content at which a soil tends to flow and will not retain its shape.

Plastic Limit

Moisture content at which a soil deforms plastically. Soil is rolled into threads until it crumbles.

Soil Types

Clay - C

Silts - M

Sands - S

Gravels - G

Organic - O

High Liquid Limit - H

Low Liquid Limit - L

Well Graded - W

Poorly Graded - P

Incandescent lighting (pros and cons)

Colour rendition

Warm white

Short life

Fluorescent lighting (pros and cons)

Colour rendition

Long life


Poor optical control

Mercury vapor lighting (pros and cons)

Good for lighting foliage


Long life

Exposure can risk health

Metal halide lighting (pros and cons)

Colour rendition

Optical control

Short life

High pressure sodium lighting (pros and cons)

Low maintenance

Good optical control

Poor colour rendition

Low pressure sodium (pros and cons)

Longest life

Poor colour rendition

Poor optical control

Tips to ensure uniform lighting:

1. Select which light is most appropriate (i.e. area, bollard, down, low down, or accent)

2. Confirm radius size of one footcandle

3. Ensure no dark spots between lights

Planting design in terms of physical environment?

- soil

- sunlight / solar exposure

- precipitation

- wind exposure

- seasonal temp range

- salt tolerance (if applicable)

Planting design in terms of design requirements?

- directing movement

- framing vistas

- moderating the site environment

- creating spaces / defining the base, vertical and overhead plane

Planting design in terms of design character of the plant material?

- height

- mass

- form (rounded versus columnar)

- colour

- seasonal interest

- growth habits

When a lighted object can be seen from one direction only, above-grade accent lights can be used. Prevent glare by aiming fixtures away from observers.

Uplighting for Directional Viewing
If the lighted object can be seen from any direction, then well lights with louvers should be considered.

Uplighting for All Around Viewing
Up and down lighting is used to create this effect. Ground lighting is accented by shadows from leaves and branches.


Trees and shrubs with interesting branching structure can be dramatically expressed with this technique. This also provides additional security near buildings.

Silhouette Lighting

Special objects such as statues, sculpture, etc can be lighted with well shielded fixtures with this technique.


This type of lighting produces circular patterns of illumination for general area lighting. Effective for groundcovers, low shrubs, walks, and steps.

Induction Lamps

Long life

No filaments

Pros and cons of straw mulch:

Low cost




Anchored in place (costly)

Requires nets/tackifier (costly)

Fire hazard

Pros and cons of wood fiber mulch:

Holds seed and plants (can be hydroseeded)

Low cost


Does not resist erosion or protect from rainfall

Pros and cons of netting/fibre mulch

Resists erosion

Protects from rainfall

Absorbs water

Holds moisture

Good slope protection


Install must be in contact w/ soil

7 common causes of slope failure

1. Overloading slope (weight of bldg./roads)

2. Increasing fill on slope w/out adequate drainage

3. Removing vegetation

4. Increasing slope grade

5. Increasing slope length by cutting at bottom of slope

6. Changing surface drainage route

7. Changing subsurface drainage route

Hard, dense stone. Difficult to work with. Weather resistant, durable.


Wide colour range, durable stone, easy to work with stone.

Durable stone, range of colours, earth tones, similar to limestone in workability.

Durable stone, moderate to expensive, slippery when wet.
Durable stone, expensive, slippery when wet.

Grade of brick which is resistant to freeze/thaw. Can be used as paving. Costly.
Sx grade
Grade of brick not recommended in zones which will be saturated w/ water.

Mx grade

Installed in light duty (2 layers) to heavy duty (+/- 5 layers).

Inexpensive and durable.

Absorbs heat.


Versatile and durable.

Commonly used as paving material.

Good life cycle costs.

Options for colour and texture.

Rational Method formula for calculating peak discharge rates of stormwater


Q= peak discharge (cubic feet per second)

C= run off coefficient (ratio of amount of surface runoff to rainfall)

i= rainfall intensity for a storm duration equal to the time of concentration

A= area of the basin (or subshed

Site analysis:













Location and Context


Hydrology and Drainage




Existing Buildings

Other Structures (ex.)



Spaces and Senses

Site Functions