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189 Cards in this Set

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the closeness of observations, computations, or estimates to the true values or to values accepted as being true


of, pertaining to, or occurring in the air or atmosphere

areal photograph, oblique.

an aerial photograph taken with the camera axis directed between the horizontal and vertical. 1) high oblique - an oblique photograph in which the horizon is shown; 2) low oblique - an oblique photograph in which the horizon is not shown

aerial photograph, vertical

an aerial photograph made with the optical axis of the camera approximately perpendicular to the earth's surface and with the film as nearly horizontal as is practical


a statement of the steps to be followed in the solution of a problem; an algorithm may come in the form of a word description, an explanatory note, or a labeled diagram or flowchart


any material deposited by arunning water; the soil material of floodplains and alluvial fans


any subsurface material that holds a relatively large quantity of groundwater and is able to transmit that water readily


the horizontal direction in which a slope faces


a specific frequency or range of frequencies in the electromagnetic spectrum


a portion of stream flow contributed by groundwater; it is a steady flow that is slow to change even during rain less periods


a parcel based land information system

chlorophleth map

a map comprised of areas of any size or shape representing qualitative phenomena or quantitative phenomena

often has a mosaic appearance

coefficient of runoff

a number given to a type of ground surface representing the proportion of rainfall converted to overland or surface flow




a rainstorm of a given intensity and frequency of recurrence that is used as a basis for stormwater management

list 5 guiding principles of a sustainable site

-do no harm

-precautionary principle

-design with nature and culture

-use a decision-making hierarchy of preservation, conservation, and regeneration

-provide regenerative systems as intergenerational equity

-support a living proces

-use a systems thinking approach

-use a collaborative and ethical approach

-Maintain integrity in leadership and research

-foster environmental stewardship

the ideal of 'do no harms' means what?

you make no changes to the site that will degrade the surrounding environment.

what is the precautionary principle?

being cautious when making decisions that could create a risk to human and environmental health

what does it mean to design with nature and culture?

creating and implanting designs that are responsive to economic, environmental, and cultural conditions with respect to the local, regional, and global context

what's really happening when you use a decision making hierarchy of preservation, conservation and regeneration?

the maximization and mimicing benefits of ecosystem services by preserving existing environmental features, conserving resources in a sustainable manner, and regenerating lost or damaged ecosystem services.

why should we provide regenerative systems as intergenerational equity?

it provides future generations with a sustainable environment supported by regenerative systems and endowed with regenerative resources

how do you support a living process?

by continously reevaluating assumptions and values and adapt to demographic and environmental change.

what's the systems thinking approach?

understand and value the relationships in an ecosystem and use an approach that reflects and sustains ecosystems services; reestablish the integral and essential relationship between natural processes and human activity

what's the collaborative and ethical approach?

when you encourage direct and open communication among colleagues clients, manufacturers and users to link long term sustainability with ethical responsibility

how do you maintain integrity in leadership and research?

by implementing transparent and participatory leadership, develop research with technical rigor, and communicate new findings in a clear, consistent, and timely manner.

how do you foster environmental stewardship?

in all aspects of land development and management, foster an understanding that responsible management of healthy ecosystems improves the quality of life for present and future generations


acrylontrile-butadienne-styrene; it's used primarily as waste and and storm water pipes and is lighter than pvc but more than twice as expensive

in terms of site analysis, why is location important?

it refers to the projects relationship to the community.

List the factors that should be looked at before any work can begin on inventory and analysis of a site.

- the project program

- existing site conditions

- all permit requirements

- cost to perform all the inventory analysis

which directions do strong cold winds typically come from?


cool southern winds come from which direction


What are the benefits of a properly installed wind break?

- lower heating costs in the winter

- make the outside area more usable

what are some restrictions when developing on a site with wetlands

- they usually have large setbacks

- stricter building regulations

What is a major concern for plantings at the bottom of a hill?

greater chance of frost damage

cold air flows down hill

A low p.H. value indicates what?

highly acidic

pH of 1-6 on a gradient

a high p.H. Value indicates what

highly alkaline

what is alkalinity

the quantitative capacity of a solution to neutralize an acid

a p.h. value between 6.6 and 7.2 indicates what

a substance is slightly acidic and slightly alkaline

it's closer to being neutral in terms of acidity or alkalinity

what is a nuisance

anything that interferes with ones right to quiet enjoyment

does porous asphalt reduce runoff?


does porous asphalt allow more water to infiltrate the soil?


does porous asphalt filter pollutants?


stormwater management and open space requirements are what type of requirements?

Zoning Codes

federal laws may provide states and communities with some guidance with regards to regulations, but do not provide the actual rules or enforcement

Federal, State, or Local: which level of government enforces zoning codes?

Local government

Does U-shaped seating design promote conversation amongst groups in public spaces?


Does L-shaped seating design promote conversation amongst groups in public spaces?


Does linear seating situated across from one another promote conversation amongst groups in public spaces?


What is Xeriscaping?

using native plants in an area

What is a benefit of xeriscaping?

- reduced plant maintenance

- reduced amount of watering

native plants are more conditioned to their environment.

is soil a renewable resource?


is oil a renewable resource?


is a tropical rain-forest a renewable resource?


why isn't a tropical rain forest a renewable rain-forest?

it would be impossible to replicate them anywhere else in the world

What is urban infill?

the act of taking previously developed sites in urban areas that have been left vacant or blighted and redeveloping them.

List the benefits of urban infill.

- renewing old neighborhoods

- filling in the missing tracts of land in a row

- decreased commuter traffic

- cleaning up dirty and abandoned sites

- preserving and enhancing the character of a neighborhood

- limiting urban sprawl

List the disadvantages of urban infill

- higher cost compared to building on a greenfield

- old and inflexible zoning codes

- potential disagreements with local residents about the intended use of the land compared to what they desire the land to become

what is a greenfield?

a site that has little to no constraints due to prior work

what is the rough grade?

the slope of the land before the final products such as plantings and hardscape are installed

what is the natural grade?

the grade of the original land

What is the finish grade?

the grade after all the work has been done

the same as the construction grade

What is the construction grade?

the grade after all the work has been done

the same as the finish grade

are shrubs and smaller items good at blocking the sun?


what does an ideal fuctional diagram present?

connections between program elements

what doesn't an ideal functional diagram show?

scale of areas or where they will sit on a site

does urban sprawl follow a linear path


goes from city to suburbs

Does a grid layout indicate low population density?


is a radial or circular design of a city consistent with a new urbanism village?


Of loam, clay and silt, which is the least erodible?


of loam, clay, and silt, which the most erodible?


it's dusty but not as dusty as sand

which can you gather information about from a aerial photograph? topography, soil type, or vegetative cover.


What is the purpose of traffic calming interventions?

to make neighborhoods more pedestrian friendly and safer for everyone around.

list a few traffic calming techniques

- speed bumps/humps

- chicanes

- narrowing of the road

- small corner radii

- related street elements such as lighting and traffic circles

What's a chicanes?

a small bump out on either side of the street that temporarily narrows the road.


what is the benefit of a Critical path analysis?

it breaks down the different parts of a job and sequences them so that the work is done efficiently and in a manner that things aren't done out of order

this test is used to determine the maximum density of soil needed for a project

proctor test

this test is used to determine the consistency of the soil on a site

hand test

this test is used to determine the density of natural or compacted soil and is used mainly for stability analysis

sand cone test

list the most common types of easments

- access

- utility

- conservation

- scenic

- solar

scenic easements

protects scenic views on a site and limit any development that would block vistas and other scenic views

utility easements

set up so that the utility companies can place their infrastructure on an individual's property and prevent the land owner from removing or damaging it

conservation easments

intended to restrict the development potential of a piece of land for the betterment of the ecosystem. the use of these easements on a piece of land will also have an effect on its real estate values.

what are some options for gaining community input

- town meetings

- interviewing people in the neighborhood

- sending out surveys

intended to show how a town may be developed over a long period of time

a master plan

shows the different uses allowed throughout a community

a land use map

shows how specific areas should be developed within a town

an area plan

sets goals and objectives of a town over a long period of time. these types of plans do not get into the specifics of the designs of areas

a comprehensive plan

intended to make for better designs and planning by learning from past designs, but do not involve the public's input.

post occupancy evaluation

behavioral observations and precedent studies

intended to locate and determine all physical, social, biological and cultural characteristics of a site

a site inventory

list a few items that may be mapped out in a site inventory.

- odors

- traffic volume and circulation

- elevations

- bearing capacity of soils

- landforms

- winds

- plant materials

- prior land use

- boundaries

- noises

- visual quality

the 5 senses

usually fed by mineral rich surface water or groundwater. a kind of mire. dominated by peat moss

a fen

a type of wetland

a mire that accumulates peat, a deposit of dead plant material

a bog

type of wetland

dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species. often found at the edges of lakes and streams, where they form a transition between the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems

a marsh

type of wetland

occur along large rivers where they are critically dependent upon natural water level fluctuations

a swamp

type of wetland that is forested

a perennial tree or shrub where the stem remains above ground during the winter

woody plant

has stems that die back to the ground each year

herbaceous perennial plant

list the three types of woody perennials

- arborescent

- shrubby or fruticose

- suffrutescent

describe an arborescent woody plant

woody and tree like in size, usually with a single main trunk or stem

potentially anything over 10 ft tall

describe a shrubby or fruticose woody plants

woody throughout and large, usually with several main stems

describe suffrutescent woody plants

a semi-shrub. a perennial plant with stems only woody at the base

list three types of herbaceous plants

- annuals

- biennials

- herbaceous perennials

describe annual herbaceous plants

plants that complete their life cycle in one year.

they grow from seed, produce foliage, flower, and produce fruits and seed in one season

describe biennial herbaceous plants

plants that live for two years from seed. they flower only or mostly in the second year

describe herbaceous perennials

plants that live for 3 years or more

how are townships broken up and how are they numbered.

they are broken up into sections forming a 6 by 6 grid. the grid is numbered starting in the northeast corner and flows in a serpentine manner, right to left, left to right, etc.

USGS maps provides what type of information about an area?

- geological maps that provide soil types

- engineering properties of the soil

- location of bedrock

- natural hazard maps (fault lines, earthquake zones, eruption histories of volcanoes, landslide risk areas)

- natural resources (groundwater, aquifers, geothermal)


Transit oriented developments are designed so that a person could walk from the edge of the town to the town center in 5 minutes

why can't you use an aerial photograph for creating topographic map

these types of photographs have horizontal and vertical distortion

a description of soil when it is easily broken into smaller pieces with little to no effort


a description of soil when it easily molded or deformed and remains that way


a description of soil when it doesn't hold together regardless of the situation


it cannot be crushed by two fingers

a description of soil when it requires an adequate amount of pressure from two fingers in order to crush it


a connection of lines that enclose an area and whose coordinates are predetermined.

closed traverse

used for all property types except for preliminary road and terrain line boundaries, which would be an example of an open traverse

what is an aliquot part?

a quarter or half division of a section of land

what is home rule?

where a municipality may demand more freedom from the rulings of a state

I should be able to control what happens in my house without higher level interference

what are the five different categories of wetlands based on their characteristics

- marine

- estuarine

- riverine

- palustrine

- lacustrine

what type of wetland do oceans and coastlines fall under?


what type of wetland do tidal waters and salty tidal marshes fall under?


a wetland system that is semi enclosed at best


what type of wetland do rivers and streams fall under?


a wetland system that is dominated by plant material


what type of wetland do marshes, bogs and swamps fall under?


a wetland system that has a salinity level greater than 0.5%


what type of wetland do lakes and reservoirs fall under


a wetland system that is found in a depression, has a low salinity level and has a plant cover of less than 30%


what is conveyance?

the legal process of transferring property from one owner to another?

what factors affect runoff

- length of the storm

- overall size of the watershed

- amount of vegetation in the watershed

what are irregularities of the earth's surface called


they are an element of topography

what makes up a watershed?

- stream channel

- floodplain

- upland areas

- groundwater

the maximum angle in which the slope of soil remains stable

angle of repose

the soils ability to withstand compressive forces from directly opposite sides

compressive strength

the point in which soil begins to exhibit plastic behavior

the plastic limit

the soil's ability to withstand pressure from a downhill force

shear strength

affected by the soil's composition, its structure and loading conditions

how might an aquifer become contaminated?

- contaminants via rivers and streams

- surface drainage

-leaching of septic fields

why might it be a bad idea to develop on a former logging area?

the site would be susceptible to erosion

what category does a marsh fall under when it's classified based on soil and plant conditions

hydrophyte and hydric soils

what category does a swamp fall under when it's classified based on soil and plant conditions?

hydrophyte and hydric soils

what category does a seaweed covered shore fall under when it's classified based on soil and plant conditions?

areas without soils but with hydrophytes

what category does a tidal flat fall under when it's classified based on soil and plant conditions?

areas without hydrophytes or soil

the angle of incidence

the angle that the sun's rays strike the earth

the azimuth of the sun

the angle of the sun north or south of an east-west line


an objects ability to reflect the sun's rays

what's the ideal riser to tread relationship?

between 24" and 26"

when is summer solstice (the longest day of the year)

June 21/22

when is winter solstice (the shortest day of the year)

December 21/22

which direction do base lines run?

east to west

same as lattitudes

which direction do meridians run?

north to south

same as longitudes

the point on a hill in which the entire slope can be seen

military crest

gardens characterized by rolling hills

English gardens

gardens characterized by being more formal and orderly

italian and french gardens

gardens characterized by often being simplistic with a main feature is the rock gardens

japanese gardens

list a few physical attributes of a site

- drainage patterns

- microclimate

- water table

- depth to bedrock

- soils

- slope

- wind direction


of, relating to, situated on the banks of a river


the land area separating adjacent stream valleys

designed to filter pollutants on site using plant material and only allow overflow water to drain into the pipes with the rest infiltrating the soil

Bioretention ponds

this type of design should occur on smaller sites with gentle slope and a low water table to prevent contamination of the ground water.

when local lakes and streams feed the wetland system with water, what type of wetland is it?

composite wetland

when a wetland is fed mainly by streams, what type of wetland is it?


when a wetland is fed by high water tables, what type of wetland is it?


when a wetland is fed by runoff, what type of wetland is it


stratified sampling

allows specific areas to be chosen beforehand for sampling using such items as aerial photographs

what is the benefit of stratified sampling?

as long as no elements are excluded, this is viable method of sampling

systematic sampling

a random sampling method using a systematic approach

a sample can be taken at 15 ft. intervals off of a line, but the direction off the line at each interval and the distance from the interval is random

quadrant sampling

involves setting up individual quadrants throughout a property and everything within that quadrant be recorded

random sampling

is unpredictable

list a few locations that should have a spot elevation

- corners of buildings

- manhole covers

- landings

- tops and bottoms of retaining walls and steps

- high points of swales

- invert elevations and rim elevations

GIS technology

creates data using georeferencing, but does not provide data analysis, just the data

GPS technology

used to locate and map different physical items on a site, but provides no analysis


uses aircrafts and light to create digital models of sites, but does not provide data analysis

1 section

640 acres

also 1 square mile

1 acre

43,560 Square feet

how are sedimentary rocks formed

when sediments are deposited by the wind, water, gravity, etc. and the pressure forces them together into rock layers

most common rocks and make for good uses in outdoor living spaces

what are two types of sedimentary rocks?

limestone and sandstone

what is the average number of household trips?


how are parcels of land identified?

from the smallest division to the quadrangle it is located in

what type of survey shows the property boundaries and building locations but does not show topography?

Mortgage surveys

what type of survey shows the contour lines of a specified piece of land and will not show proposed structures?

Topographic survey

what type of survey delineates the boundary of a piece of land in legal terms?

a boundary survey

used to establish the true property corners of a lot and is needed to obtain a building permit

what type of survey shows all existing and proposed items as well as contours and site boundaries?

a plot plan survey

what type of survey is used to establish lengths and directions of boundary lines and not necessary for building permits?

a land survey

what type of survey is used to restore property lines in the public land survey system?

a cadastral survey

what type of survey is used in construction to obtain the quantities of work to take place on a site?

Quantity survey

what is the maximum grad of a slope that is to be mowed

3 to 1 (3:1)

how far apart should consecutive intersections be placed

at least 125 feet

a small grassy hill is also known as ...

a knoll

mean sea level is a reference line called ...

a datum

a reference point with a known elevation, which usually references the elevation above or below sea level.

a bench mark

which part of a fores allows for the most amount of plant diversity?

the forest edge

why does the forest edge allow for more plant diversity?

increased amounts of sunlight is able to pass through to the understory at the edge

this type of mach shows a single attribute; it can express anything from physical properties, social, cultural or economic qualities of the land in question.

thematic map

land use maps, elevation range and soil suitability maps

the study of landforms and the way they are created by such things as erosion