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24 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Communication Exposure
- family dynamics are different (good model for speech and lang)
- other special needs
- cultural and linguistic diversity
- early identification
Language Characteristics
- syntax
- semantics
- pragmatics
- restricted knowledge of Schema
Lexical-Semantic Skills
- restricted knowledge of word classes, too many nouns & verbs
- restricted variance of syntax
- plateau
Pragmatic Skills
- generally fall behind their hearing peers
- difficulties in turn-taking, topic identification, communication repair
- plateau at 11 years with slower development
Literacy Development
- very difficult for ASL users
- must expose HI child at a young age
- allow access to captioned television and TDD
Language Assessment
- Formal, standardized language tests are normed on hearing children
- Trouble comes in how to administer the test… dominant language, reading abilities speech perception abilities
- Supplement with test normed on HI/D children
Language Management
- recasting
- building schemata
- sabotage activity
- pre-literacy activities

Bilingual education ASL and Spoken English
Speech Characteristics
- mild to severe loss
- most aspects are likely to be comparable to normal hearing peers if early identification occurs
- professionals must be aware of what sounds are audible and work with those that are not
- intelligibility can be as low as 20% or high as 100%
- poor vocal fold adduction prior to phonation
- lose lots of air in preparation for speech
Speech Characteristics
- Sever to profound loss
- respiration
- resonance
- phonation
- articulation & phonology
- suprasegmental aspects
- can exhibit both hyper and hypernasality
- may use nasality as a speech perception cue
- inadequate vocal adduction for vowels resulting in breathy voice
- poor control of the fundamental frequency
- often higher fundamental frequency
- speech intensity can vary
Articulation & Phonology
- vowels start to resemble the neutral schwa
- confusions of dipthongs and vowels
- nasalization of vowels
- consonant mis-articulation
- voicing errors
- omission of final consonants or parts of blends
- tongue placement is less accurate
- often will say every single sound – such as silent “e”
Suprasegmental Aspects
- important for emotional intent, urgency, stress of message
- slower speaking rate
- longer pauses in running speech at inappropriate places
- rapid pitch changes
- difference in intonation
Poor Pragmatic Skills
- ignore clarification requests
- lots of nods and bluffs
- don’t know how to repair a breakdown
Average reading level of a deaf student who wears hearing aids
is 3rd - 4th grade, rarely exceeding 7.5 grade reading level
- little improvement over past 80 years
- inadequate langauge skills
- don’t develop and auditory basis for mapping sound to print
- SO…NO sounding out words
- child "big house"

- Adult "Yes, the house is big"
- 20% of words for severe/profound
- 56% of vowels, 72% of consonants
- more errors= less intelligibility
After 5 years with a Cochlear Implant
80% intelligible speech
the HI or Deaf have no morphemes for
plurality or past tense
the HI or Deaf miss
multiple meanings
- go stand by the piano
- put this on the music stand
the HI or Deaf's vocabulary
is mostly things they can touch
- difficulty with abstract words
Language Skills
come in the same order, but as a much slower rate