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177 Cards in this Set

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During rapid running movement where inertia is high the center of gravity of the body must be raised in order to maintain balance when stopping or changing direction.


T or F?

False, has to be lowered

During the process of bone remodeling, osteoblasts reabsorb existing bone and osteoclasts form new bone.


T or F?

False, osteoblasts form new bones and osteoclasts reabsorb.

Dynamics is the study of systems in motion that are subjected to acceleration.


T or F?

True (biomechanics)

Each muscle in the body may be innervated by a single nerve or multiple nerves.


T or F?

True

Each of the following joints allow a slight amount of motion to occur except?

Gomphosis synarthrodial

Eccentric muscle actions result from isometric muscle contractions.


T or F?

False, involved with isotonic muscle contraction

Eccentric muscle contractions are referred to as muscle actions instead of a contraction since the muscle is shortening as opposed to lengthening.


T or F?

False. Muscles are lengthening under tension

Elbow extension takes place in what plane?

Sagittal Plane

Elbow extension where the triceps applies force to olecranon process in extending the non-supported forearm at the elbow is an example of which type of lever arrangement?

first class lever

Epiphyseal plates generally close by age 18 but some may be present until age 27


T or F?

False



Flexion/extension is an example of movement in a coronal plane about an anteroposterior axis.


T or F?

False

For two objects in contact with each other, which would result in the greatest amount of friction?

Depends on the hardness and roughness of the surface

Forward movement of the shoulder girdle in the horizontal plane away from the spine is?

abduction (protraction)



Friction is the force that results from the resistance between the surfaces of two objects from moving one upon another.


T or F?

True

Fusiform muscle fiber arrangement results in a circular pattern. T or F?

False (fiber arrangement is parallel)

Generally, as a muscle gets longer, its ability to exert force increases.


T or F?

True



Hick's Law states:

There is a linear relationship b/w movement/reaction time and the number of choices. The more choices you have the slower you react.



Humans are known to have about how many skills?

40-50

Hypervigilance can be defined as

Panic

If the knee were not able to slide, the femur would ____________ when going from flexion to extension on a stationary tibia.

The femur would roll off the front of the tibia

In a first class lever arrangement, the agonist and antagonist muscle groups may contract simultaneously on either side of a joint axis.


T or F?

True

In a wheel axle mechanical arrangement, only the radius of the wheel corresponds to the force arm.


T or F?

False, both radius and axel respond.



In order for rotation to occur in objects with a fixed axis, an eccentric force must be applied.


T or F?

True

isokinetic muscle contractions involve a dynamic movement wherein the speed of movement is variable.


T or F?

False, the speed of movement is always constant



Isotonic contractions are described as either concentric or eccentric on basis of whether shortening or lengthening of the muscle occurs.


T or F?

True

It is not possible for a muscle to cause more than one action in an associated joint.


T or F?

False

Joint movement may occur without any muscle contraction.


T or F?

True, passive.



Kinematics is the description of motion and includes consideration of each of the following except?

Kinematics considers time, displacement, velocity, acceleration, and space factors of a systems motion.

Levers rotate about an axis of rotation as a result of a force being applied to cause movement in the same direction as the resistance.


T or F?

False, against the resistance or weight.

Ligaments through their bone to bone connections provide dynamic stability to diarthrodial joints.


T or F?

False

Linear displacement is the distance that a system moves along a straight line.


T or F?

True

Longitudinal bone growth continues as long as epiphyseal plates are open.


T or F?

True

Mass is the effect of gravity on the amount of matter in the body.


T or F?

False

Minor variations in the point of force application have no effect in determining the effective force of the muscle.


T or F?

False



Most outer bone is composed of cortical bone with cancellous cone underneath.


T or F?

True

Motion b/w the articular surfaces of bone is known as _______________

Arthokinematics

motion of the bones relative to the three cardinal planes resulting from the physiological movements is known as __________________

Osteokinematic motion

Movement of the little finger side of the hand toward the forearm in the lateral plane is _____________

ulnar flexion

movements in the transverse plane occur around which axis?

vertical axis

muscles are the main source of force that produces or changes movement of a body segment or the entire body.


T or F?

True

Muscles are usually named due to all of the following except?

Muscles are named by visual appearance, anatomical location, and function.

of all the movements possible in the joints of the body, flexion/extension is the most commonly occuring.


T or F?

True

One of the functions of articular cartilage is to separate the diaphysis and epiphysis.


T or F?

False



Overall the human leverage system is build for speed and range of movement at the expense of force generation.


T or F?

True

Perceptual Narrowing is defined as:

focusing attention on one item

Raising the humerus high out to the side to ask a question involves which of the following motions?

Scapular upward rotation

regarding the angle of a pull, a muscle would be most effective in moving a joint when its angle of pull is at _____ degrees

90

Shaking the head "no" occurs in which plane?

Transverse plane

Short force arms and long resistance arms require greater muscular force to produce movement as compared to longer force arms with a long resistance arm.


T or F?

True

Skeletal muscles are responsible for movement of the body as a whole and movement within each of the joints of the body.


T or F?

True

Skill is defined as:

the ability to maximize effort in order to achieve a desired goal with minimum effort

Some circumstances exist where movement is improved when the body tends to be unbalanced.


T or F?

True

Statics is the study of systems that are in a constant state of motion.


T or F?

True

The acromioclavicular joint has more total range of possible than the sternoclavicular joint.


T or F?

True



The actions of serratus anterior include abduction and upward rotation.


T or F?

True

The actions of the lower portion of the trapezius muscle include all of the following except _____

elevation

the conscious awareness of the position and movement of the body in space is kinesthesis.


T or F?

True

the coracoclavicular ligament is particularly important in providing stability to the acromioclavicular joint.


T or F?

True

The dorsal scapular nerve (C5) branch of the brachial plexus serves as the innervation for the rhomboids.


T or F?

True

The environment in an open skill is

many variables i.e. batting in baseball (pitcher's movement plus changing conditions) closed skill could be shooting freethrows

the frontal plane divides the body into ___________

anterior and posterior

the innervation of the trapezius muscle is the Accesory nerve (cranial nerve XI) and branches of C3-4

True

the insertion of the levator scapulae is the transverse processes of the upper 4 cervical vertebrae

false (origin, not insertion)

the insertion of the pectoralis minor is the coranoid process of the scapula

False (coracoid)

The insertion of the serratus anterior muscle is the anterior aspect of the whole length of the medial border of the scapula

True

The inverted-U principle states

optimal level of arousal/motivation for optimal level of performance

the levator scapulae muscle is innervated by the dorsal scapular nerve C5 and branches of C6

False

The levator scapulae muscle is responsible for upward rotation of the inferior angle of the scapula

False

the location of the pectoralis minor muscle is such that muscle may be palpated with little difficulty

False

The mass of an object affects the speed and acceleration of the object during movement

True

the medial border of the scapula above the scapular spine is the insertion point of the levator scapulae

true

the medullary canal is located at the ends of long bones

false

the more sudden the activation of a myotatic reflex, the less significant the reflexive contraction

false(more not less)

the most laterally located bony landmark of the scapula is the __________

the lateral border

the most palpable shoulder girdle muscle is the trapezius

True

The most superiorly located bony landmark of the scapula is the ____________

Acromion process

the muscles that are included in the shoulder girdle group include all of the following except

pectoralis major is not included

the nerve that innervates the serratus anterior muscle is the long thoracic nerve (C5-7)

true

The origin of serratus anterior is the surfaces of the upper seven ribs at the side of the chest

False

The origin of the levator scapulae muscle is the spinous process of the upper four cervical vertebrae (C1-4)

False (transverse process)

The origin of the pectoralis major muscle includes the anterior surface of the costal cartilages of the first six ribs

true

The origin of the rhomboid muscles is the spinous processes of the last cervical (C-7) and the first seven thoracic vertebrae (T1-5)

true

The origin of the subclavius is the superior aspect of the first rib at its junction with its costal cartilage

True

The pectoralis minor can perform adduction, downward rotation, or depression when activated

false

the pennate type of muscle fiber arrangement may be classified by the following terms except?

pennat emuscle fiber classified as unipennate and bipennate

The point at which all of the body's mass and weight is equally balanced or equally distributed in all directions is the

center of gravity

The proprioceptive or kinesthetic sense is defined as:

The awareness of ones body in space and limb position. All movement is learned kinesthetically.

The resistance arm is the distance b/w the axis and the point of lever application

False. Resistance application.

The scapula is an example of an irregular bone

False (flat bone)

The scapulothoracic joint consists of the bony articulation of the anterior scapular moving directly against the posteroliteral ribs

false

the serratus anterior performs abduction in the transverse plane

true

the shape of bones does not limit movement

false

the sternoclavicular joint is supported anteriorly by the costoclavicular ligament

false

the subconscious mechanism by which the body is able to regulate posture and movement is

kinesthesis

the synergist muscle of an activity is considered to be the primary mover

false

the term "action" refers to a specific movement of a joint that occurs as a result from a concentric muscle contraction

true

the term "extensibility" refers to the ability of a muscle to return to its original length following stretching

False (elasticity)

The term "innervation" is used to describe a segment of nervous system and is defined as being responsible for providing a stimulus to muscle fibers within a specific muscle or portion of a muscle

true

The term "intrinsic" usually pertains to muscles within or belonging solely to the body part upon which they act

True

The term "isokinetics" describes a type of dynamic exercise that uses concentric and/or eccentric muscle contractions

True

The three specific types of accessory motions are described as

Roll, spin, glide

The trapezius can perform adduction in the transverse plane when activated

True

There are approximately 552 muscles in the human body

False (600)

There are two major types of fiber arrangements which are parallel and pennate

True

Two different muscles may contract simultaneously at a joint and cause a motion that neither would cause if contracting alone

true

Typical bony features included tendons, epiphysis and articular cartilage

False

velocity is how fast an object is moving, or the distance an object travels in a specific amount of time

True

what term is used to describe the motion of bringing the dorsum of the foot closer to the anterior leg?

Dorsiflexion

When antagonist muscles contract concentrically they perform the opposite joint motion of the agonist muscle

True

Which of the following actions is not performed by the trapezius?

Circumduction of scapula

Which of the following actions is performed by the levator scapulae

elevation

Which of the following anatomical landmarks is located on the anterior surfaces of the scapula?

subscapular fossa

Which of the following anatomical landmarks is located on the posterior surface of the scapula?

Scapular spine

Which of the following are actions associated with the shoulder girdle?

downward rotation, upward rotation, abduction, adduction, depression, and elevation

Which of the following best describes the anatomical location of the head with respect to the left arm?

Superior and medial

Which of the following could be done to reduce the amount of force needed to move a lever?

apply force further from the axis

Which of the following definitions is correct?

Which of the following do not result in the contraction of the muscle fibers in a particular motor unit?

Which of the following does not describe a way in which machines function?

Which of the following factors may enhance stability?

Lowering the center of gravity

Which of the following is a possible advantage of a wheel axle mechanical arrangement?

more power

Which of the following is a proprioceptor associated with muscle tissue

muscle spindles

which of the following is a true statement regard agonist muscles?

causes a joint motion through a specified plane of motion when contracting concentrically

Which of the following is a true statement regarding stabilizer muscles?

surround joint or body part, contract to fixate or stabilize the area to enable another limb or body, segment to exert force and move, known as fixators, essential in establishing a relatively firm base for the more distal joints to work from when carrying out movements

which of the following is a true statement regarding synergist muscles?

assist in action of agonists, not necessarily prime movers for action, known as guiding muscles, assist in refined movement and rule out undesired motions.

Which of the following is a type of linear motion?

rectilinear motion (motion along a straight line and curvilinear motion)(motion along a curved line)

which of the following is affected by the shape and size of a muscle?

ability of the muscle to produce force

Which of the following is an action performed by the serratus anterior?

upward rotation and abduction

Which of the following is an example of a discrete skill?

a discrete skill is classified as having a definite beginning and end (catching a ball). A continuous skill is a repetitive action (hammerin in a nail)

Which of the following is an example of a type of friction?

Kinetic friction, static friction, rolling friction, fluid friction.

Which of the following is Newton's Law of Inertia?

The greater the mass of an object, the greater its inertia

Which of the following is not a classification of neuron type?

nonpolar

Which of the following is not a junction performed by the skeletal system?

synthesize growth hormones

Which of the following is not a property of skeletal muscle tissue that allows for force production and movement about joints?

constrictability

Which of the following is not a shape by which muscles are categorized?

radial

Which of the following is not a true statement regarding antagonist muscles?

muscles work against agonist muscles by contracting and preventing movement

Which of the following is not a true statement regarding isokinetic exercise?

isokinetic exercise is a type of dynamic exercise using concentric and/or eccentric muscle contractions

Which of the following is not among the general factors that positively affect the achievement of balance?

Which of the following is not an example of a movement in the sagittal plane?

lateral flexion

Which of the following is not an example the result of excessive tissue deformation due to mechanical loading?

shear

Which of the following is not considered to be a law of motion and physical activity?

Physical activity

Which of the following is not true regarding an eccentric muscle action?

Typically called a positive type of muscle contraction

Which of the following is not true regarding concentric muscle contraction?

commonly described as being a negative type of contraction

Which of the following is not true regarding the force arm of a lever?

Which of the following is not true with respect to an isometric muscle contraction?

joint angle may be maintained in a relatively stable position

Which of the following is the basic functional unit of the nervous system responsible for generating and transmitting nervous impulses?

neuron

Which of the following is the correct definition of Biomechanics?

Application of mechanical physics to human motion. Study of mechanics as it relates to the functional and anatomical analysis of biological systems and especially humans

Which of the following is the correct definition of Kinesiology?

The study of motion or human movement

Which of the following is the Law of Acceleration?

a change in acceleration of a body occurs in the same direction as the force that caused it. The change in acceleration is directly proportional to the force causing it and inversely proportional to the mass of the body

Which of the following is the Law of Reaction?

For every action there is an opposite and equal reaction

Which of the following is true regarding an eccentric muscle action?

the force developed by the muscle is less than that of the resistance

Which of the following is true regarding circumduction?

combination of flexion, extension, adduction, abduction.

Which of the following is true regarding concentric muscle contractions?

contractions cause movement against gravity or resistance

Which of the following is true with respect to the rhomboid muscles?

rhomboid and scapular contract medially

Which of the following levers would be best to use to move a specific object if your only objective was slight movement of the object?

first class lever

Which of the following levers could be best to use to move a specific object if your only objective was speed of the object's movement?

third class lever

Which of the following movements occur at the shoulder joint but not at the knee?

circumduction

Which of the following muscles has a portion of its insertion located on the spine of the scapula?

trapezius

Which of the following muscles has a portion of its origin located on the ribs?

serratus anterior

Which of the following muscles is innervated by the branches of C3 and C4 of the brachial plexus?

Trapezius, levator scapula

Which of the following muscles is innervated by the branches of C5, C6, and C7 of the brachial plexus?

serratus anterior

Which of the following muscles is located most anteriorly on the human body?

Which of the following muscles is located most posteriorly on the human body?

Which of the following muscles is not innervated by the spinal accessory nerve and/or the branches of C5?

pectoralis minor

Which of the following muscles perform an action in the sagittal plane of motion?

Which of the following muscles performs both elevation and depression?

trapezius

Which of the following muscles perform stabilization and protection of the sternoclavicular joint?

subclavius

Which of the following muscles would be best strengthened by the bench press exercise?

Pectoralis Major, anterior deltoid, coracobrachialis

Which of the following muscles would most likely be substantially weakened in an individual with a winged scapula?

serratus anterior, rhomboid.

Which of the following pairs of variables exhibits an inverse relationship?

b/w force and force arm; b/w resistance and resistance arm

Which of the following positions would best stretch the pectoralis minor

adduction

which of the following skills or tasks has no distinct beginning or end?

continuous

which of the following statements accurately describes relationship b/w linear and angular motion?

linear velocity deals with speed in a straight line and angular deals with speed through an angle or circular motion

Which of the following statements is false regarding the proportional relationship b/w force components and resistance components?

the closer the force application is to the axis of rotation, the greater the amount of resistance that can be moved is false.

Which of the following statements is true regarding isometric muscle actions?

joint angle, stable position

Which of the following types of machine is most common in the musculoskeletal system arrangements of the human body?

levers

Which of the types of muscle contraction is usually utilized in causing an object's deceleration?

eccentric contraction