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191 Cards in this Set

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What are the 11 organ systems of the human body

- Respiratory
- Cardiovascular
- Urinary
- Lymphatic
- Integumentary
- Muscular
- Skeletal
- Reproductive
- Endocrine
- Nervous
- Digestive

What is Gross anatomy?

Study of structures without the aid of a microscope

What is posture?

- The alignment or position of the body and its parts.

- The position from which all movements begin and end.

What is mobility?

Ability to go through a range of motion.

How are movements controlled?

The nervous system sends the correct commands for the correct movements to occur.

What four (4) factors effect movement?

- Posture
- Mobility
- Strength, Power, and Endurance
- Control

What are the four (4) types of tissue?

- Epithelial
- Connective Tissue
- Muscle
- Nervous

What are the three (3) functions of epithelial tissues?

- Cover and line body surfaces
- Provide layer of protection
- Regulate secretion and absorption

What are the six (6) types of connective tissues?

- Adipose
- Blood
- Cartilage
- Bone
- Ligaments
- Tendons

What are the three (3) types of cartilage?

- Articular
- Elastic
- Fibrocartilage

What are the two types of bones?
(Not shapes)

- Spongy (Tubercular)
- Compact

What are ligaments?

Connective tissue that:
- Connect bones to other bones to form a joint
- Guides and limits motion

What are tendons?

Connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone

What are the three (3) parts of the tendon?

- Osteo (Attached to the bone)
- Body
- Myo (Attached to the muscle)

What are the four (4) parts of the nervous system that were discussed in class?

- Communications system
- Central Nervous System (Controller)
- Musculoskeletal System (Pan)
- Proprioceptors (Sensory feedback)

What are the three (3) planes of movement?

- Sagittal Plane
- Frontal Plane
- Transverse Plane

The sagittal plane divides the body into what sections?

Left and Right (in half) sections

The frontal plane divides the body into what sections?

Anterior and posterior sections

The transverse plane divides the body into what sections?

Superior and inferior sections

What are the five (5) functions of bones?

- Structural support
- Movement
- Protection
- Mineral storage
- Blood cell production

In the simplest terms, what is the bone made up of?

Cells

What cells are in the bone?

- Osteocytes: Mature bone cells
- Osteoblasts: Lay down new bone cells
- Osteoclasts: Absorbs old bone cells

What are osteocytes?

Mature bone cells

What are osteoblasts?

Cells that lay down new bone cells

"B" for builder

What are osteoclasts?

Cells that absorb old bone cells

What is a general loss of bone called?

Osteopenia

What is a severe loss of bone called?

Osteoporosis

What are the three (3) layers of bone?

- Periosteum (Outside)
- Compact bone aka Cortical bone
- Spongy bone aka Trabecular bone (Inside)

Bone arranged in struts and criss-cross sections is called?

Spongy bone (Trabecular bone)

What type of bone is laid down to make a bone stronger?

Spongy bone (Trabecular bone)

What is an individual strut of trabecular bone called?

Trabecula

What are the three (3) parts of a long bone?

- Epiphysis (Ends)
- Diaphysis (Shaft)
- Apophysis (Tendon attachment point)

In general, what are the two way you can maintain bone health or make it last longer?

- Increase bone mass density when you are younger
- Decrease the gradual loss of bone after you peak

At what age do you reach your peak bone mass density?

Early 20's

What is the relationship between time and your bone mass density?

Over time your bone mass density will increase and then decrease once you have reached your peak bone mass density.

What can a person do to help maintain/slow down their bone density mass loss?

- High impact exercise
- Improve Diet (intake calcium, stay away from phosphorus, fats, and sugars) and intake Vitamin D and C (helps bone absorb calcium)

What factors negatively impact bone mass density?

- Aging
- Hormones (post-menopausal women and oral contraceptive takers)

What three (3) components does the Female Athlete Triad syndrome consist of?

- Amenorrhoea (no menstrual cycle)
- Disordered eating
- Osteoporosis or Osteopenia

What are the five (5) shapes of bones?

- Long bones (More rectangular shaped)
- Short bones (Square)
- Flat bones (Thin)
- Irregular bones (Odd shaped)
- Sesamoid bones (Embedded in tissue)

What does the axial skeleton consist of?

Skull, Vertebral Column, and Thoracic Cage

What does the appendicular skeleton consist of?

Upper and lower extremities

(including the pelvic and shoulder girdles)

What is osteology?

The study of bones

What is a joint?

The area where two bones articulate (come together)

What are the three (3) functional classification joints?

- Synarthrosis (No Movement)
- Amphiarthroses (Little Movement)
- Diarthrosis (Freely movable)

What type of movement does synarthrosis joints perform?

No movement

What type of movement does amphiarthroses joints perform?

Little movement

What type of movement does diarthrosis joints perform?

Freely movable

What are the three (3) structural classification joints?

- Fibrous
- Cartilaginous
- Synovial

What are the two types of fibrous joints?

- Sutures
- Syndesmosis

What are the two types of cartilaginous joints?

- Synchondroses
- Symphysis

What are syndesmosis joints?

Fibrous joints that are bound by ligaments and contain no joint capsule

What are synchondroses joints?

A cartilaginous joint where cartilage between two bones meet

What are symphysis joints?

A cartilaginous joint where there is a fusion between two bones. Cartilaginous pad is formed between the two. (i.e. Pubis symphysis)

What types of structural classified joint goes with the functional classified joint diarthroses?

Synovial joints

What types of structural classified joint goes with the functional classified joint synarthrosis ?

Sutures

What types of structural classified joint goes with the functional classified joint amphiarthroses?

- Syndesmosis
- Synchondroses
- Symphysis

How many bones are needed to create a synovial joint?

Two (2) Bones

Generally, what are two (2) types of bone ends will a synovial joint have?

Concave and Convex

What type of cartilage will cover the bone ends in regards to a synovial joint?

Articular cartilage

What type of tissue is the joint capsule consist of?

Fibrous connective tissue

Does the joint capsule surround one or both ends of the two articulating bones?

Both

What is the lining inside of the joint membrane called?

Synovial membrane

What is the space inside the joint capsule called?

Joint cavity

What type of fluid is located within the joint cavity?

Synovial fluid

What is the function of the joint capsule?

Minimize friction between the two articulating bones

What are the three (3) ligaments of a synovial joint?

- Extracapsular (Outside of joint capsule)
- Intracapsular (Inside of joint capsule)
- Capsular (Part of joint capsule itself)

What are the two (2) accessory structures in some synovial joints?

- Cartilaginous pads (Stability)
- Padding: Fat pads and Bursa (Friction)

What are cartilaginous pads?

They are accessory structures of synovial joins, made up of fibrocartilage, with a purpose to deepen the concave surfaces of the bone to allow more stability.

i.e. Menisci, Labrum (Shoulder and Hip)

What are the accessory structures of some synovial joints that help to minimize friction of ligaments/tendons that cross joints?

- Fat Pad (filled with adipose tissue)
- Bursa (sac filled with synovial fluid)

How many axis define a plane?

Two (2)

True or False: The axis of rotation origin movement occurs in the perpendicular plane

True

Movement in the sagittal plan occurs in the ______ axis

Lateral/Medial axis

Movement in the transverse plan occurs in the ______ axis

Longitudinal axis

Movement in the frontal plan occurs in the ______ axis

Anterior/Posterior axis

Flexion and extension movements occur in which plane?

Sagittal plane

Abduction and adduction movements occur in which plane?

Frontal plane

Internal and external rotation occur in which plane?

Transverse plane

What are the three (3) types of muscle?

- Cardiac
- Skeletal
- Smooth

What bones make up the proximal carpal row?

- Scaphoid (Lateral side-Thumb side)
- Lunate
- Triquetral
- Pisiform (Superior to the Triquetral)

What bones make up the distal carpal row?

- Trapezium (Lateral side-Thumb side)
- Trapezoid
- Capitate
- Hamate

What is the acronym to help you remember the carpal bones?

Some Lovers Try Positions That They Can't Handle

- Scaphoid
- Lunate
- Triquetrum
- Pisiform
- Trapezium
- Trapezoid
- Capitate
- Hamate

Define Degrees of Freedom (DOF)

- The number of planes a bone or joint can move in

- Each plane represents a degree of freedom

What is the most degrees of freedoms a joint can have?

Three (3)

What is the amplitude of movement you have within a degree of freedom?

Range of Motion (ROM)

How do you classify synovial joints?

By their degrees of freedom

Each plane represents how many degrees of freedom?

One (1)

A planar joint (gliding joint) has how many degrees of freedom?

Zero (0)

What type of synovial joint has zero (0) degrees of freedom?

Planar joint (aka gliding joint)

How many degrees of freedom do hinge and pivot joints have?

One (1)

What type of synovial joints has one (1) degree of freedom?

- Hinge joint
- Pivot joint

What direction will the axis of rotation be on a hinge joint?

Perpendicular to the long bone

What direction will the axis of rotation be on a pivot joint?

Parallel to the long bone

What types of synovial joint have two (2) degrees of freedom?

- Condyloid joint
- Saddal joint

What type of joint is convexed in both directions?

Condyloid joint

What type of joint is concaved in both directions?

Condyloid joint

If a joint is convexed or concaved in both directions, than it is considered what kind of joint?

Condyloid joint

What type of joint is concaved in one direction and convexed in another?

Saddle joint

How many degrees of freedom does a saddle and condyloid joint have?

Two (2)

What type of synovial joint has three (3) degrees of freedom?

Ball and socket joint

If a joint has more stability, it will generally have less ____________.

Mobility

If a joint has more mobility, it will generally have less ____________.

Stability

Where is the interphalangeal (IP) joint located?

Between the 1st distal phalanx and the 1st proximal phalanx (fingers and toes)

Where is the distal interphalangeal (DIP) joint located?

Between the 2nd thru 5th distal phalanges and 2nd thru 5th middle phalanges (fingers and toes)

What joint is located between the 2nd thru 5th middle phalanges and the 2nd thru 5th proximal phalanges? (fingers an toes)

Proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint

What movement are the interphalangeal joint responsible for? (fingers and toes)

Flexion and Extension

Where is the axis of rotation located for the interphalangeal joints? (fingers and toes)

Pass through the heads of the more proximal phalanges

What joint has an axis of rotation that pass through the heads of the more proximal phalanges?

Interphalangeal (IP) joints

How many degrees of freedom do the interphalangeal joints have?

One (1)

What joint is located between the metatarsals and the proximal phalanges?

Metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint

What movements can the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint perform?

- Flexion and Extension
- Abduction and Adduction

How many degrees of freedom does the metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint have?

Two (2)

What joint has their axis of rotation go through the metatarsal heads?

Metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint

Which tarsal bones have planar joints associated with them?

- Cuneiform
- Cuboid
- Navicular
- Calcaneus

When two joints are located close together and function together it is called?

Joint complex

Which joint is responsible for dorsiflexion and plantarflexion?

Talocrural joint

Which joint is responsible for inversion and eversion of the foot?

Subtalar joint

What joint is located between the talus and calcaneus?

Subtalar joint

Where does the axis of rotation go through for the subtalar joint?

Through the head of the talus

How many degrees of freedom does the subtalar joint have?

One (1)

Where does the axis of rotation go through for the talocrural joint?

Between the malleoli (lateral and medial malleolus)

What is the joint between the femur and tibia?

Tibiofemoral joint

What movements occur at the tibiofemoral joint?

- Flexion and Extension
- Internal and External Rotation

What type of joint is the tibiofemoral joint?

Condyloid joint

Where is the axis of rotation for the extension and flexion movements at the tibiofemoral joint?

Through the femoral epicondyles

Where is the axis of rotation for the internal and external rotation movements at the tibiofemoral joint?

Through the shaft of the tibia

What joint is located at the patella and femur articulation?

Patellofemoral joint

How many degrees of freedom does the patellofemoral joint have?

Zero (0)

What is the name of the joint where the femur and pelvis (acetabulum) articulate?

Hip (Coxafemoral joint)

How many degrees of freedom does the hip (coxafemoral joint) have?

Three (3)

Where is the axis of rotation for all movements that occur at the hip (coxafemoral joint)?

Each axis goes through the femoral head

What is a functional spinal unit (FSU)?

Two (2) vertebrae and the intervertebral disc between them

What is the inside part of the intervertebral disc?

Nucleus pulposus

What is the outside part of the intervertebral disc?

Annulus fibrosus

How many joints are associated with a functional spinal unit (FSU)?

Three (3)

What joint are associated with a functional spinal unit (FSU)?

- Intervertebral joint (Symphysis joint)
- Left facet joint
- Right facet joint

What is the function of the facet joints?

Guide some movements and prevent/limit other movements

Where are the axis of rotations located for the functional spinal unit (FSU)?

Each axis of rotation goes through the anterior vertebral body of the superior vertebrae

What is responsible for flexion/extension, lateral bending, and rotation at the neck/head?

Craniocervical

What is responsible for flexion/extension, lateral bending, and rotation at the trunk?

Thoracolumbar

What is the first cervical vertebrae called?

Atlas (C-1)

What is the second cervical vertebrae called?

Axis (C-2)

What joints make up the shoulder complex?

- Acromioclavicular (AC) joint
- Sternoclavicular (SC) joint
- Glenohumeral (GH) joint

What is the articulation between the scapula and the thoracic wall and it important for shoulder movement?

Scapulothoracic articulation

Motion at the shoulder involves what two (2) joints/articulations?

- Glenohumeral (GH) joint
- Scapulothoracic articulation

Motion at the scapulothoracic articulation involve what two (2) joints/articulations?

- Acromioclavicular (AC) joint
- Sternoclavicular (SC) joint

What movements are the Sternoclavicular (SC) joint responsible for?

- Elevation and Depression
- Protraction and Retraction

Where is the axis of rotation for the Sternoclavicular (SC) joint?

Axis of rotation goes through the center of the joint. (Anterior and Posterior axis)

What type of synovial joint is the sternoclavicular (SC) joint?

Saddle joint

What movements are the Acromioclavicular (AC) joint responsible for?

Upward and Downward rotation

What combination joints are needed to move the scapula?

- Sternoclavicular (SC) joint
- Acromioclavicular (AC) joint

The Glenohumeral (GH) joint has three (3) degrees of motion, what type of synovial joint is it?

Ball and socket joint

Where is the axis of rotation for the Glenohumeral (GH) joint?

Every axis of rotation goes through the humeral head

In what axis does flexion and extension occur in?

Medial and Lateral axis

In what axis does abduction and adduction occur in?

Anterior and Posterior axis

In what axis does internal and external rotation occur in?

Longitudinal axis

Why is this necessary for the Glenohumeral (GH) joint to be a freely moveable joint?

We want the scapula to move so that it positions the Glenoid fossa so we can maintain maximal congruency between the Glenoid fossa and humeral head

What is it called to raise your arm above your head regardless of the plane?

Elevation

What combination of movements are needed to elevate your arm above your head?

- Elevation
- Upward rotation

What are the three (3) types of elevation?

- Flexion
- Abduction
- Scaption

What movements occur during flexion elevation?

- Elevation of the clavicle
- Upward rotation of the scapula
- Protraction

What occurs at the scapula during protraction during flexion elevation?

Moves the scapula forward so the scapula points the Glenoid fossa anteriorly

What movements occur during abduction elevation?

- Elevation of the clavicle
- Upward rotation of the scapula
- Retraction

What occurs at the scapula during retraction during abduction elevation?

Moves the scapula backward so the Glenoid fossa points laterally

What plane does scaption elevation occur in?

Half way between sagittal and frontal plane

What movements occur during scaption?

- Elevation of the clavicle
- Upward rotation of the scapula
- Rotation occurs at the Glenohumeral (GH) joint

Why doe scaption occur half way between the sagittal and frontal plane?

Because the scapula is tilted

What is the purpose of scapular motion?

- To point the Glenoid fossa in a particular direction

What movements can occur at the clavicle?

- Protraction and Retraction
- Elevation and Depression

What joints make up the elbow complex?

- Humeroradial joint
- Humeroulnar joint

Where is the axis of rotation for the humeroradial joint and the humeroulnar joint?

Axis of rotation goes through the humeral epicondyle

What type of joint is the elbow complex and what movement can occur?

Hinge joint (flexion/extension)

What joint is at the forearm?

Proximal radioulnar joint

What joint has the axis of rotation that goes through the head of the radius?

Proximal radioulnar joint

What type of joint is the proximal radioulnar and what movement can occur?

Pivot joint (Pronation/Supination)

What joint is between the distal radius/ulna and carpal bones?

Wrist

How many degrees of freedom does the wrist have?

Two (2)

What movements occur at the wrist?

- Flexion/Extension (Medial/Lateral axis)
- Radial deviation (Thumb) and Ulnar deviation (Pinky) (Anterior/Posterior axis)

Where is the axis of rotation for the wrist?

Both go through the capitate of the distal carpal row

Which plane does radial and ulnar deviation take place in?

Frontal plane (anterior/posterior axis)

Where is the carpometacarpal joint located?

Between the carpal rows and the metacarpal bones

What is the joint between the metacarpals and phalanges?

Metacarpophalangeal joints

What movements occur at the metacarpophalangeal joint?

- Flexion/Extension
- Abduction/Adduction

Where is the axis of rotation for the two (2) movements at the metacarpophalangeal joint?

Metacarpal heads

Which carpometacarpal joint is different?

1st carpometacarpal joint (thumb)

What movements occur at the 1st carpometacarpal joint?

- Flexion and Extension
- Adduction and Abduction

What is the motion for adduction and abduction at the 1st carpometacarpal joint?

- Adduction is thumb movement away from the palm
- Abduction is thumb movement toward the palm

What does it mean when the proximal joint is moving on the distal end?

- Proximal bone/joint moves while the distal bone/joint stays relatively still

What does it mean when the distal joint/end is moving on the proximal end?

- Distal bone/joint moves while the proximal bone/joint stays relatively still

What is circumduction?

Combining four (4) movements to create a circular movement

What is opposition?

Bringing the thumb to the little finger

What are the different types of horizontal movements?

- Horizontal adduction/abduction
- Horizontal flexion/extension
- (some sort of chest fly movement)