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66 Cards in this Set

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What are some characteristics of African music?
Call and response, litany (one or 2 phrases repeated over and over) and additive form (new selections of material added with no reference to previous material), Open and resonant vocal style, percussive uality of sound is used, improv,
What are some characteristics of the Historical Past Music?
call and response, spiritual, work song, field holler, street cry, use of the blue notes, diatonic penationic scales, Open resonant voice quality, wide variety of tone quality, percussive quality in sound, primacy of rhythm,
What are some characteristics of the Rural Blues
1900-1920s, south, sing about what they know, usually men, rough style, imporvised, free form,unaccompanied voice or with solo instrument and ad hoc instrument,
What are some characteristics of Pre-Jazz [Brass Bands]
no fixed instrumentation, trumpet clarinet tuba trombone drums sometimes strings, 12-17 musicians, trumpet - melody, clarinet - embellishes the melody, tuba - bass line, trombone - roots with smears, slides, slurs, sometimes melody, drums setus up the breaks millitary style drumming, rag characteristics
What are some characteristics of Ragtime?
Multi themed, need piano, AABBCC, simple syncopation, supportive left hand, printed music, 1900-1920
What are some characteristics of Early Jazz?
New orleans, trumpet/cornet - loudest melody, clarinet, trombone, tuba, banjo, drums, piano, Each instrument has assigned role (carry over from brass bands). Everybody plays all the time except for the solos which come in the breaks, collective improv, ensemble playing, simple harmonies, improv there is based on embellishing melody, mutes, slides, trills, vibrato, King Oliver most important figure
What are some characteristics of Dixieland?
Chicago roots, many soloists and bands, Included Creole Jazz Band, ODJB, NORK,
What are some characteristics of Classic Blues
Urban environment, 1920s, female, songs about bedbugs, roaches, rats etc, hopelessness, lyrics tell story, smooth diction, instrumental accompaniment using conventional instruments, clear-cut begginings, stricter vocal techniques
What are some characteristics of Boogie Woogie
exclusively piano issued from blues, blues form, emphasis on rhythm rather than melody, left hand was repeated, unpianistic, rugged, unpredictable, tow voiced music, color important
What are some characteristics of Swing?
1935-1945, Fletcher Henderson, wrote for sections of the bands, Big band was invented with harmony, AABA, Benny Goodman, 1920 beginning of big bands.
What are the Characteristics of Jelly Roll Morton?
Led the Red Hot Peppers, First great master of form in jazz, first great composer-arranger, combined ragtime forms with the rhythmic, harmonic and variational elements of jazz and blues, balanced, one of first to use sax in jazz,

Works include:
Wildman blues
Hyena Stomp
Granda's Spells
Sidewalk Blues
Wolverine Blues
Mr Jelly Lord
King Porter Stomp
Characteristics of Louis Armstrong?
First real soloist in jazz, Extended the concept of solos to lasting for an entire chorus, first to use scat singing, extended range of trumpet, large variety of dramatic devices and effects: trills, shakes, vibrato, etc., linked notes of chords together,

Songs include:
Heebie Jeebies - scat solo
West End Blues - Hot 7, Earl Hines
Weather Beard - Duo
Let's Call the Whole Thing Off
Characteristics of Duke Ellington?
America's greatest composers, timbre very important, perfect balance between composition and improvisation, influenced boogie woogie,
Songs include:
Jack the Bear
Koko
Cottontail
Harlem airshaft
Braggin' in Brass
East St. Louis Toodle-oo
Drop Me Off in Harlem
The Sacred Services
Creole Love Call
Black and Tan Fantasy
Characteristics of Lester Young?
Lighter sound/floaty, almost no vibrato, snakes through the song, less embellishments, Tenor Sax, with the Count Bessie Band
Characteristics of Coleman Hawkins?
Tenor sax, darker sound/digs in, big wide vibrato ala Louis Armstrong, stairs through song, more embellishments-phrased melody.
Singers from Classical Blues?
Ma Rainey, Mamie Smith "Crazy Blues", Alberta Hunter, Bessie Smith
Singers from Rural Blues?
Papa Charlie Jackson, Jim Jackson, Furry Lewis, Tommy Johnson, Robert Johnson, Bumblebee Slim, Blind Willie McTell, Big Bill Broonzy
Ragtime Players?
Scott Joplin, Henry Lodge, Abe HOlzman, Sophus Jergenson, Russel Smith, James Scottt, Bunk Johnson
Boogie Woogie Players
Meade Lux Lewis, Jimmy Blythe, Hersal Thomas, Pinetop Smith, Albert Ammons, Jimmy Yanceym Pete Johnson, Cripple Clarence Lofton, Eddie Heywood Jr.
Song by Coleman Hawkins?
Body and Sould
The Man I love
Bean's Talking Again
Songs by Lester Young and groups he was in?
Lester Leaps In (Kansas City Seven)
Just You, Just Me
I Never Knew
Duke Ellington Songs?
East St. Louis Toodle-oo
Black Beauty
Rockin' in Rhythm (Theme Song)
Jack the Bear - Features Bassline
Cotton Tail - percurses bebop
Caravan
Pre-Jazz Brass Band songs?
Federal March - John Phillip Sousa - Resembles ragtim
Trombone Sneeze - Arthur Pryor
Castle House Rag - James Reese Europe - originated most of dances
Early Jazz New Orleans Songs?
Livery Stable Blues: ODJB - first recorded jazz piece
Ory's Creole Trombone - Ory's Sunshine Orchestra - First Black Band recorded
Carolina Shout - James P. Johnson - First Jazz piano solo
Chimes Blues - King Oliver's Creole Band - with Louis Armstrong, first solo
She's Crying for Me: NORK
Mr. Jelly Lord - NORK - first mixed recorded piece
Chicago Dixieland songs?
Dippermouth Blies: Creole Jazz Band
Melancholy : Johnny Dodd's Black Bottom Stompers
4 or 5 Times: Jimmy Noone
Singin the Blues : Frankie Trumbauer's Orchestra
Riverboat Shuffle: Hoagy Carmichael - saxophone
Nobody's Sweetheart: McKenzie and Condon's Chicagoans - first recorded drumset
How to tell if not Jelly Roll?
Piano not prominent, didn't get timbre effects, or no sax or string bass
Big Band important songs?
Casa Loma Stomp - Casa Loma Orchstra
Moten Swing: Bennie Moten's Kansas City Orchestra
Stompin' at the Savoy: Chick Webb - call and response
In the Groove: Andy Kirk and his Clouds of Joy - woman in band other than singer
King Porter Stomp: Benny Goodman - arr. Fletcher Henderson
On the Sunny Side of the Street - Tommy Dorsey - Sy Olivers
Begin the Beguine - Artie Shaw - clarinet
The Mole - Harry James - trumpet
Shufflebug Shuffle - Benny Carter
Tuxedo Junction - Erskine Hawkins
Flying Home - Lionel Hampton
The Peanut Vendor - Stank Kenton
Swing Small Group Songs?
Lester Leaps In: Kansas CIty Seven - Lester Young tenor sax
Scuttlebutt - The Gramercy Five - Arty Shaw Clarinet
Bugler's Dilemma: The John Kirby Sextet - Most important jazz bass player
Tea for two: The Art Tatum Trio - Best pianist, Guhdum
What is Dixieland?
White new Orleans Jazz. OBJB and NORK
What was the first Jazz recording?
ODJB "Livery Stable Blues" 1917
First classic blues recording?
Mamie Smith "Crazy Blues" by Perry Bradford
First recording by black band?
Kid Ory's Sunshine Orchestra "Ory's Creole Trombone"
First mixed recording session?
NORK and Jelly Roll Morton with "Mr. Jelly Lord"
First recording with Louis Armstrong as leader?
Hot 5 1925
First recordings by the Red Hot Peppers (Jelly Roll)
1926
First boogie woogie recording
Meade Lux Lewis: "Honky Tonk Train"
First jazz improviser
Louis Armstrong
First Jazz composer
Jelly Roll Morton
First Jazz ensemble on film?
ODJB "The Good for Nothing"
First published ragtime composition
William Krell: "Mississippi Rag"
First important interracial jazz group
Benny Goodman/Teddy Wilson/Gene Krupa
First composer to set brass against reeds?
Fletcher Henderson
First jazz musician nominated for Pulitzer prize
Duke Ellington
King of swing?
Benny Goodman
King of Jazz
Paul Whiteman
Empress of blues?
Bessie Smith
Why was new orleans birthplace of jazz?
Seaport city, Liberal atmosphere, long-standing tradition of music.

Also Storyville and reinterpretation of the 14th amendment
WHo led the Red Hot Peppers?
Jelly Roll Morton
Most important figure of Early Jazz?
King Oliver
What is Dixieland?
White new orleans jazz transplants in chicago, included ODJB and NORK
Why did jazz move to Chicago?
prohibition, isolation with immigration, negro blood didn't have same rights, closing of storyville, WWI
What were Louis Armstrongs firsts?
First great jazz soloist, first jazz musician to make a continuous impact in US and europe, first entertainer in jazz
When was the swing era?
1935-1945
What were the differences between swing and Early jazz?
Swing had less instruments to decrease the wall of sound, also writing for sections and more harmony, more saxaphones.
Why's Jazz move from Chicago to New York City?
Dissemination of records broke down differences, bergeoning record industry attracted musicians to cities, big band was main vehicle for jazz by 1920s, big band had to be invented, new breed of jazz musicians
Who sparked the beginning of swing era?
Benny Goodman. August 21, 1935 Hollywood CA
What were the 2 kinds of swing small groups
Groups within band and independent groups
Who led the Cabjivers?
Cab Calloway
plasma cells
antibody factories
Who lead the Kansas City 7?
Count Basie, Lester Young was also in this band and played sax
Who lead the Gramercy 5?
Artie Shaw
Who lead the Bobcats?
Bob Crosby
Who lead the Clambake 7?
Tommy Dorsey - Trombone
What did John Kirby play?
Bass
What lead to the death of swing?
World War 2 with the draft, hard transportation, curfew, also recording ban from 1942 to 1943, Cabaret tax - no dancing or singing changed the audience musician interaction, music started to sound the same
Who lead the Hot 7?
Louis Armstrong