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62 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Arui Hakuseki
• Tokugawa direct retainer of Ienobu; Confucian Scholar;
• Wrote Views on the Course of History
Tried to transform shogun into a national monarch;
• An interpretation of Ancient History
o Interpreted Age of the Gods depicted in the Kojiki
Miura Baien
• A philosopher
• Wrote on subjects: Astronomy, Cosmology, Ancient theories, and anatomy
• Wrote “The Three Go’s” (Gengo, Kango, and Zeigo)
• Wrote Deep Words (Gengo)
o Jori(Logic): Opposition of pairs.
• The Origin of Price
o His view on local problems; Wrote on managing currency in a closed economy.
Kaiho Seiryo
• Independent rationalist
• Lessons of The Past
o Seiryo’s econimic thoughts
Kamo No Mabuchi
–(National Learning)
• Poetry as the medium best suited for expressing heartfelt emotion.
• Closely follows the Man’yoshu
• Inquiry Into the Idea of the Nation
o Attacks Chinese and Confucian thought
Motoori Norinaga
NATIONAL LEARNING
• Precious Comb Box: Meant to “comb” out the snarls of intellectual confusion
o Upholds the traditional account of the divine creation, and rejects cosmogony of the Chinese.
• Personal Views of Poetry
o Acclaims Japanese Poetry for it’s spontaneous expression of the deepest human emotion
o Speaks on Love and Poetry
• The Exquisite Comb
o A study of Tales of Genji
• Touches on Good and Evil compared to Buddhist/Confucian morals
Hirata Atsutane
NATIONAL LEARNING
• Popularize Shinto nativism by asserting singular supremacy of Japan, culture Way, and people.
• Japanese Learning
o Puts it above Confucian and Buddhist learning
Takeda Izumo, Miyoshi Shoraku, Namiki Sosuke:
PUPPET THEATER
• Theater Director and Playwrights
• Chushingura (47 Loyal Ronin)
o A bunraku play based on the Ako Vendetta
• Wrote the 3 great works of puppet theater
o Sugiwara and the Secrets of Calligraphy; Yoshitsune and the thousand Cherry Trees
Suga Sensuke
Initially a chanter, became a playwright
• Gappo at the Crossroads
JoKanbo Koa
• Modern-Style Lousy Sermons(Dangibon): criticizes contemporary Edo culture and kabuki
Hiraga Gennai
(Dangibon):
• Rootless Weeds: King of hell asks a water spirit to find Kikunojo
• Modern Life of Shidoken
• A Theory of Farting: A satire of contemporary samurai and Confucian values
Yosa Buson
LITERATI
: Noted painter, literatus, and haikai poet
• Combined Chinese and Japanese poetry
Karai Senryu
Judge for verse capping in Senryu.
• Compiled Willow barrel, which created a new genre named after him.
Ueda Akinari
Yomihon
Noted for his heavy allusive use in Chinese and Japanese classical sources in fiction
• Ugetsu monogatari (Tales of Moonlight and Rain)
o Chrysanthemum Vow, Reed-choked Weeds, A Serpent’s Lust
The Playboy Dialect
The first true sharebon
• Mixes satirical humor with interest in the manners of the pleasure quarters
• Identifies the Tsu, half-tsu, and yabo found in the Sharebon genre.
Santo Kyoden
Kibyoshi
• Grilled and Basted Edo-born Playboy
o Enjiro, the son of a wealthy merchant, tries to gain a reputation through a series of publicity stunts.
Shikitei Sanba
Kokkeibon)
• Floating World Bathhouse
Jippensha Ikku
Kokkeibon
• Travels on the Eastern Seaboard
o Focused on the” boorishness” (yabo) of two travelers
o Story aimed at a broad range of readers
o Also doubled as a guidebook for travelers
Tamenaga Shunsui
The first writer of ninjobon
• Spring Color Plum Calender: Narrative about contemporary life that emphasized emotion, sentiment, and romantic love; from a woman’s perspective
Ryutei Tanehiko
(Gokan)
• A Country Genji by a commoner Murasaki
o One of the most popular books of the Edo period
o Aimed at female readers
Utagawa Kunisada
Extremely popular ukiyo-e artist
• Made the original set for chuushingura
Tsuruya Namboku
Wrote Ghost Stories
Wrote ghost stories
• Ghost stories at Yotsuya
Kyokutei Bakin
Late Yomihon
● Gave up samurai status to become a writer
● Wrote under Santo Kyoden
● Displayed Confucian intention to praise virtue and punish evil
● The 8 Dog Chronicles
- 106 volume book
Sanyutei Encho
● Considered the founder of modern rakugo
● Specialized in Love stories and Ghost stories
● Peony Lantern Ghost Stories
Yamagata Daini
Forerunners of restoration
• Master Ryu’s New Thesis
• Harshly criticized warrior regimes
• Was executed on charges of lese-majeste
o an offense against the dignity of a reigning sovereign or against a state.
Rai Sanyo
• The Unoffical History of Japan
(Really opinionated history)
Honda Toshiaki:
Ambitions for Japan
• Studied Dutch in hopes to learn Western Mathematics
• Books filled with ambitious programs and suggestions about how to incorporate Western knowledge into Japan
• Secret Plan of Government
o Four Imperative needs: Gunpowder, Metals, shipping, and the acquisition of oversea possessions
Sato Nobuhiro:
(Forerunner of restoration)
• Wrote about military improvement and nationalism
• Had extensive knowledge on agriculture, horticulture, forestry, and mining
• Japanese scientist, advocate of Japanese Westernization
Aizawa Seishisai:
(Seclusion/Restoration)
• New Thesis : Acclaimed essay on patriotism and loyalty.
o “Revere the emperor, repel the barbarian”
• To be prepared, a decision between war/peace must be made.
Sakuma Shozan:
(Eastern Ethics and Western Science)
• “Eastern Ethics and Western Science”
o Defend Japan and preserve it’s Eastern ethical heritage, while adopting while adopting the new technical knowledge of the west.
• Assisted with the compromised “Union of Civil and Military government”
o Uphold the policy of “Opening the country”, and to promote a greater voice between imperial court and daimyo.
• Reflections of my Errors: A self-examination of Shozan while he was in prison, justifying his political beliefs
Yokoi Shonan
• “Opening the Country for Common Good”
o Common good can only be achieved by “enriching the country” and opening it up to public discourse, trade, and economic growth for the benefit of the people.
• Three Thesis on State Policy
o Enriching the country; Military reform; The way of the samurai
Yoshida Shoin
• “Barbarian quarrelling general”
o Unsatisfied with the status quo and shogun.
Fukazawa Yukichi
: Writer, publicist, and educator
• Autobiography of Fukuzwa Yukichi
o Traveled to the West; and expresses his experience
Kumagai’s Battle Camp
Scene from Chronicle of the Battle of Ichinotani
• Kumagai allows his enemy Atsumori escape, and replaces him with his own son Kojiro in order to stay loyal to lady Fuji. The head viewing is the most dramtic scene of the performance
Mito School
Proclaiming Japan’s divine mission to turn back the west and to establish a world empire under the legitimate imperial dynasty.
Ako Vendetta
lord of Ako attacked and injured Lord Kira. He was sentenced to commit seppuku.
• 21 months later, Asano’s ronin avenged him by killing lord Kira. They as well were sentenced to Seppuku
Kyoho Reforms
• Carried out by the eighth shogun, Tokugawa Yoshimune
• Intended to resolve the financial crisis facing the shogunate and the samurai caused by the increasing inequality between elite socio-political status and economic reality.
Tempo Reform
• Came and went quickly
• Banned books on courtesans
Rangaku (Dutch Studies):
Knowledge of the west that Japan absorbed during the sakoku period . All the knowledge and techniques from the West were transmitted through the medium of the Dutch language.
Sekai and Shuko
“Old world story, with new modern twist”; Ashikaga period setting with Edo fashion and pleasure quarters.
Ugachi
Satirically viewing and commenting on the flaws on contemporary manners in 18th century gesaku
Kokugaku
(National learning) The study of all things Japanese (Japan rocks)
Treaty of Nanjing:
marked the end of the Opium War between the Chinese and British In 1842
“gunboat diplomacy
when someone uses the threat of warfare unless agreeable terms are met
kokutai (national substance)
national substance, both form and essence, promoted by the Mito school for rising loyalty to the emperor
Quotes
Satsuma and Chôshû
: two domains in south-western Japan that combined their forces to try to overthrow the Tokugawa shogunate in 1866
Meiji Restoration: in 1869 the daimyo in Satsuma and Choshu gave up their rites to rule, all land and provinces ruled by emperor, status of samurai basically wiped out of existence.
Satsuma Rebellion:
led by samurai against the newly formed Meiji government, Last Samurai movie
Joruri
Chanting; performed alongside bunraku; accompanied by a shamisen
Bunraku
Puppet theater; composed of 3 elements: 1) Puppets, music, and chanting from an old text.
Sewamono
contemporary life pieces
Jidaimono
Period pieces; mainly samurai
Dangibon
Satiric Sermon; didactic tone and critique of contemporary society.
Bunjin (literati
Someone who worked in several art forms as an avocation instead of a livelihood; Chinese poetry, painting, and calligraphy.
Senryu
7-5-7 syllable comic haiku; uses humor, satire, and wit to comment on contemporary society and the human condition; involves verse capping.
Yomihon:
Reading books; Written by bunjin writers in a unique Japanese-Chinese style that merged classical and vernacular diction.
Sharebon
Books of wit and fashion; a short story form that satirized the life of the sophisticate in the licensed quarters.
Kokkeibon
(humor books); a progression from sharebon and kibyoshi
Ninjobon:
(Books of emotion): Contemporary life in Edo. Combines elements of sentimental love and the romance.
Gokan
(Bound books); calligraphic text. 60% text, 40% image
Kyoka
A comic poem; derives from placing something vulgar, low or mundane in an elegant Japanese form or context; also has elements of pun and word associations.
Gesaku
vernacular;playful writing.
Kyoshi
Comic Chinese Poetry; concentrated on social satire, wordplay, and low topics.
Rakugo
Comic oral storytelling
- Performer sits on a cushion and mimes the speech of different characters.