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57 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
List Innate immune system cells
1) mechanical, chemical and microbiological barriers
2) phagocytic leukocytes, 
3) dendritic cells, 
4) a special type of lymphocyte called a natural killer (NK) cell, and 
5) circulating plasma proteins. (Complement system)
1) mechanical, chemical and microbiological barriers
2) phagocytic leukocytes,
3) dendritic cells,
4) a special type of lymphocyte called a natural killer (NK) cell, and
5) circulating plasma proteins. (Complement system)
List adaptive immune system cells
Native B cells, antibodies
Native T cells, effector T cells
Native B cells, antibodies
Native T cells, effector T cells
List the Immunological cells in blood
Neutrophil
Eosinophils
Basophils
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Neutrophil
Eosinophils
Basophils
Lymphocytes
Monocytes
Describe neutrophil
Describe eosinophil
Describe basophils
What are the three types of lymphocytes?
B cell
T cell
NK cell
B cell
T cell
NK cell
Which lymphocyte is in the innate immune system>
NK cell
NK cell
Describe lymphocytes
Describe NK cells
- innate immunity
- no Ag specific receptors
- large
- granules
- innate immunity
- no Ag specific receptors
- large
- granules
Describe B cells
Describe T cells
which lymphocytes deal with extracellular pathogens and intracellular pathogens?
T cells --> intracellular pathogens
B cells --> extracellular pathogens
What are the two classes of T cells?
CD4+ and CD8+
Define leucocytosis
increase in WBCs stimulated by release of inducing factors from injured cells
How does leucocytosis occur?
induction factors are released by injured cells, often due to an inflammatory response
What is margination?
Phagocytes which adhere to the endothelial wall which attach to cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) from injured cells
Phagocytes which adhere to the endothelial wall which attach to cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) from injured cells
Define Diapedesis
the process of extravasion of phagocytes through capillary wall
the process of extravasion of phagocytes through capillary wall
Define chemotaxis
attraction and movement to site of injury
attraction and movement to site of injury
Explain neutrophil migration
-chemokines which activate local endothelial cells 
- CAMs E selectin and ICAM-1
- E selectin bind with a S-Le ligand on the neutrophil
-'rolling adhesion'
- allows ICAM-1 to bind to LFA-1
- cytokines solidify the binding through IL-8 recepto...
-chemokines which activate local endothelial cells
- CAMs E selectin and ICAM-1
- E selectin bind with a S-Le ligand on the neutrophil
-'rolling adhesion'
- allows ICAM-1 to bind to LFA-1
- cytokines solidify the binding through IL-8 receptor
- moves through endothelial cells called 'diapedesis'
- migration occurs through chemotaxis from injures site
Describe phagocytosis
1. active process where an immune cell envelopes a pathogen to create a phagosome,
2. Phagosome merges with lysosome
3. Phagolysosome
4. Lysosomal enzymes digest and destroy
5. Contents removes via exocytosis
1. active process where an immune cell envelopes a pathogen to create a phagosome,
2. Phagosome merges with lysosome
3. Phagolysosome
4. Lysosomal enzymes digest and destroy
5. Contents removes via exocytosis
Describe degranulation
Release of granule contents and activity of nonoxidative and oxidative anti-microbial strategies
Release of granule contents and activity of nonoxidative and oxidative anti-microbial strategies
Describe NETosis
Neutrophils have found that they can cast a net mesh of DNA extrudes which to trap microorganisms
Neutrophils have found that they can cast a net mesh of DNA extrudes which to trap microorganisms
What are the 3 immunological cells in tissues?
- Macrophages
- Mast cells
- Dendritic cells
- Macrophages
- Mast cells
- Dendritic cells
What roles do macrophages perform?
What is a mast cell and what roles does it perform?
degranulation
parasitic worms
allergies
protects surfaces 
histamine release which increases vasocactivity and induces inflammation
degranulation
parasitic worms
allergies
protects surfaces
histamine release which increases vasocactivity and induces inflammation
What are dendritic cells?
Phagocytic cell with finger like processes which perform phagocytosis, macropinocytosis and present antigens to ,and activate, T cells.
Phagocytic cell with finger like processes which perform phagocytosis, macropinocytosis and present antigens to ,and activate, T cells.
What are the four types of dendritic cells?
CLFP
Classical
Langerhans cells
Follicular dendritic
plasmacytoid cells
CLFP
Classical
Langerhans cells
Follicular dendritic
plasmacytoid cells
Describe Classical dendritic cells
- both lymphoid and non lymphoid tissue
- phagocytosis and pinocytosis
- APC to T cells
- induce immune response to non self Ag
- enforce tolerance to self cells
- both lymphoid and non lymphoid tissue
- phagocytosis and pinocytosis
- APC to T cells
- induce immune response to non self Ag
- enforce tolerance to self cells
Describe Langerhans cells
- dendritic cells
- skin
- if has an Ag will present at lymph node
- APC activity
Describe Plasmacytoid cells
- production of interfeurons
- distinct lineage from classical dendritic cells
- do not really activate naive T cells
- weaker expression of MHC molecules
- production of interfeurons
- distinct lineage from classical dendritic cells
- do not really activate naive T cells
- weaker expression of MHC molecules
Describe Follicular dendritic cells
- no MHC II
- B cells
- no blood
- no MHC II
- B cells
- no blood
Identify immunological tissue
Primary: Bone Marrow & Thymus

Secondary: Lymph nodes, spleen, Malt, bone marrow
What are the four types of MALT
Tonsils
Bronchus
Lymphoid nodues
Peyer's patches
Tonsils
Bronchus
Lymphoid nodues
Peyer's patches
Describe the Thymus
primary immunological tissue
involutes with age
matures T cells
mediastinum location
training of self and non self
primary immunological tissue
involutes with age
matures T cells
mediastinum location
training of self and non self
Describe the lymphatic system
vessels drain lymph from tissues
vessels drain lymph from tissues
Describe Spleen
What does the red pulp in the spleen perform?
What does the white pulp in the spleen perform?
- zones
- follicles
- function
Describe location of MALT
Describe lymph nodes
Germinal follicles : B cells --> Plasma cells --> Ab
Medullary sinus: macrophages
Paracortex: T cells
Germinal follicles : B cells --> Plasma cells --> Ab
Medullary sinus: macrophages
Paracortex: T cells
Describe the initial immune response
- macrophage recognises PAMP
- recognised through pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) or through TLRs (toll like receptors)
What can eventuate from the initial immune response?
1. Phagocytosis
2. Initiation of inflammatory response
3. Secretion of cytokines
3. Complement initiation
4. Adaptive immune response
What are the interleukons released? (cytokines)
IL-1β
IL-6
TNF-α
Define cytokines
Cytokines: small soluble proteins secreted by one cell that can affect the behaviour or properties of itself or another cell.
• Usually (but not always) given Interleukin number (IL-)
Define Antigen
Define immunogen
Any substance that can elicit an immune response
Define hapten
a small molecule that can only elicit an immune response when bound to a larger carrier molecule
What are the 7 factors that influence the immunogenicity of proteins?
1. size
2. dose
3. route
3. composition
4. form
5. similarity to self
6. adjuvants
1. size
2. dose
3. route
3. composition
4. form
5. similarity to self
6. adjuvants
Rank the route of an protein from its most immunogenic to least immunogenic
1. subcutaneous
2. intrapetrioneal
3. intravenous
4. intragastic
1. subcutaneous
2. intrapetrioneal
3. intravenous
4. intragastic
What form is most immunogenic for a protein
particulate and denatured
particulate and denatured
What is the least immunogenic form for an immunogen?
soluble and native protein arrangement
soluble and native protein arrangement
Define epitope
Also known as an antigenic determinant, is the discrete site on an Ag where an Ab or an Ag receptor recognises the Ag.

OR

That part of an antigen which combines with an antibody or TCR
What are the types of epitopes?
Describe linear epitopes
• A single segment of polypeptide 
chain
• Doesn’t require folding for 
recognition
• T cells can recognise linear epitopes
• A single segment of polypeptide
chain
• Doesn’t require folding for
recognition
• T cells can recognise linear epitopes
Describe discontinuous epiope
• Amino acids from different parts of 
the polypeptide chain are brought 
together with protein folding
• Recognised by antibodies when in 
their folded conformational shape
• Amino acids from different parts of
the polypeptide chain are brought
together with protein folding
• Recognised by antibodies when in
their folded conformational shape
How does the body recognise non-self?
The body’s own cells express molecules to which a healthy immune system shows tolerance.

Recognition of non-self antigens triggers immune response.
The body’s own cells express molecules to which a healthy immune system shows tolerance.

Recognition of non-self antigens triggers immune response.