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65 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Which pathogen causes Diptheria? Is it Bacterial or Viral?
-Corynebacterium Diphtheriae
Describe the mechanism of action of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae.
-Produces Diphteria Toxin
-Toxin ADP-Ribosylates EF2
-Leads to Production of Pseudomembrane
-Enters Circulation and Damages Heart and organs
What accounts for the Symptoms produced by Corynebacterium Diphtheriae?
-The Toxin!
If a Patient is found with a Pseudomembrane in their Respiratory Tract, what pathogen is likely responsible for this?
Corynebacterium Diphtheriae
Why is removal of the Pseudomembrane from Diphtheria Toxin hazardous?
Begins to Bleed Underdeath
What are common sites for Pseudomembrane formation from Diptheria Toxin?
How and why do the effects of Diptheria Toxin Spread? What can be and is usually affected?
-Toxin enters the Blood
-Can Affect any organ
-Heart is the Major Target
What does the Diptheria Vaccine Target?
Why can Diptheria Vaccine only stop the spread of Corynebacterium Diphtheriae Infection in the Blood?
-Vaccine is against the toxin
-Elicits IgG synthesis
-IgG is in the blood
What is the treatment for Diphtheria?
-Antibiotics to Kill Bacteria
-Anti-toxin to Bind Toxin
What is another name for Whooping Cough? Which pathogen causes it?
-Bordetella Pertussis
How is whooping cough spread?
-Direct Contact
Why is Pertussis called whooping cough?
-Bordetella Pertussis causes excess mucus production
-Makes it difficult to bring air in
-Leads to Whooping Sound
Where does Bordetella Pertussis attach and grow?
Ciliated Cells
Describe the 1st stage of Bordetella Pertussis infection. What do the symptoms look like? Infectivity?
-Resembled Common Cold
-Most Infectious Stage
What characterizes the 2nd Stage of Bordetella Pertussis Infection?
Nonproductive Cough
How does Bordetella Pertussis lead to its effects? What are they?
-Excess Mucus production
-Makes it hard to bring air in
-Leads to Whooping Sound
-Can cause Vomitting
Why is the Vaccine the only effective method for control of Bordetella Pertussis infection?
-We can't tell that a patient has it until it spreads
-Antiobiotic treatment is too late at this point
How is Bordetella Pertussis treated?
Why has the Incidence of Pertussis increased in the elderly?
Waning Immunity
What are the Virulence Factors of Pertussis?
-AB Type Toxin
-Invasive Adenylate Cyclase
-Peptidoglycan Fragment
-Survival Inside Host Cells
Describe the Structure of the Pertussis Toxin.
-AB Type Toxin: 5 Non-Identical B, 1 A
How does the Pertussis Toxin mediate its effects?
-A Subunit ADP-Ribosylates G Protein
-Increases cAMP
-Can't turn off cAMP
Which Virulence Factors of Bordetella Pertussis lead to Inflammation?
-Peptidoglycan Fragment
Which pathogen causes Strep Throat?
Streptococcus Pyogenes
How is Strep Throat acquired?
-Contaminated Food
Where and in who is strep throat most common?
-Young Adults
How does a Strep throat infection start?
When Streptococcus Pyogenes binds to the Throat Mucosa
What are some symptoms of Strep Throat?
-Inflamed Thorat and Tonsils with patches of pus
From where does Streptococcus Pyogenes mediate its effects?
-Stays in the throat
-Products enter circulation
What are some of the Virulence Factors of Streptococcus Pyogenes?
-Protein F - Bind Fibronectin
-Cell Wall Fragments - Inflammatory
-M Proteins - Prevent Phagocytosis
-M-like Proteins - Bind Fc Portion of Abs
What does Protein F in Streptococcus Pyogenes do?
Binds to Fibronectin, which is abundant in the throat
What do M-like Proteins in Streptococcus Pyogenes do?
Bind to the Fc portion of Abs and other Host Proteins
What do M Proteins in Streptococcus Pyogenes do?
Prevent Phagocytosis
Which Virulence Factor is mainly responsible for the symptoms of Streptococcus Pyogenes?
Cell Wall Fragments
What are some complications of Strep Throat?
-Acute Glomerulonephritis
-Rheumatic Fever - Can lead to Heart Disease
How can Glomerular Nephritis Occur in patients with Strep Throat?
-Antigen-Antibody Complexes Collect in the Kidney
-Activate Complement
-Trigger Inflammation – Type III Immune Reaction
How can Rheumatic Fever Occur in patients with Strep Throat?
-Host makes Abs against M Proteins
-Antibodies react with Heart Proteins
-Cytotoxic T Cells trigger Inflammatory Response
-Type II Immune Reaction
How is STrep throat diagnosed?
-Throat Swab on Blood Agar
-Check for Beta-Hemolysis
How is Strep Throat treated?
Which Pathogen causes Pneumonia, Ear Aches, Menigitis, and Septic Shock?
Streptococcus Pneumoniae
Describe the morphology of Streptococcus Pneumoniae.
-Gram Positive
-Alpha Hemolytic
Where does Streptococcus Pneumoniae usually colonize? What are some common places that it spreads to?
-Nose and Throat
-Eustachian Tube and Lung
Which pathogen has the following virulence factors?
-Antiphagocytic Capsule
Streptococcus Pneumoniae
What are some of the virulence factors of Streptococcus Pneumoniae?
-Antiphagocytic Capsule
How does the Antiphagocytic Capsule of Streptococcus Pneumoniae work?
Prevents Complement from attacking bacteria
-Prevents contact between Phagocyte Receptor and IgG or C3b bound to cell
-Prevents formation of C43 Convertase
How do Autolysins from Streptococcus Pneumoniae work?
-Cause Bacteria to Lyse
-Techoic Acid and Peptidoglycan are released: Activates Complement, leads to symptoms
How does Pneumolysin from Streptococcus Pneumoniae work?
-Pore-forming Toxin
-Released during Lysis
What the fuck is the deal with treatment for Streptococcus Pneumoniae?
Increasing resistance to Antibiotics
What are the Different kinds of Bacterial Pneumonia?
-Typical (Airspace) Pneumonia
-Atypical (Interstitial) Pneumonia
-Primary Pneumonia
-Secondary Pneumonia
What is Primary Pneumonia?
Occurs due to Inhalation
What causes "walking pneumonia"
Mycoplasma Pneumoniae
What type of Cells does Mycoplasma Pneumoniae attach to? What is unique about its attachment?
-Attaches to Tracheal Epithelial Cells
-Stays outside - 1 Step away from being Intracellular
What type of pathogen is Chlamydophila Pneumoniae?
Obligate Intracellular Pathogen
Where is Chlamydophila Pneumoniae common?
-College Campuses
-Military Bases
Where does Legionella Pneumophila usually grow?
-In Macrophages
What is the main virulence factor of Legionella Pneumophila?
Ability to grow in Macrophages
By looking at an x-ray, how can you tell the difference between pneumonia caused by Legionella Pneumophila and Mycoplasma Pneumoniae?
-Mycoplasma Pneumoniae - Concentrated Damage
-Legionella Pneumophila - Diffuse
What are some of the virulence factors of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa?
-Superoxide Radicals
-Hydrogen Peroxide
What pathogen is commonly known as Anthrax?
Bacillus Anthracis
How and where does Bacillus Anthracis act?
-Taken up by Macrophages
-Transported to Lymph Node - Act here
-Effects are Systemic
What are the Virulence Factors of Bacillus Anthracis?
-Lethal Toxin: AB, Kills Macrophages, Causes Shock
-Edema Toxin: AB, Mediastinal Widening
-Poly-D-Glutamate Capsule: Doesn't Elicit Protective Abs
Which pathogen has the following virulence factors?
-Lethal Toxin: AB, Kills Macrophages, Causes Shock
-Edema Toxin: AB, Mediastinal Widening
-Poly-D-Glutamate Capsule: Doesn't Elicit Protective Abs
Bacillus Anthracis
What are the advantages of using B. anthracis as an agent of bioterrorism?
Multiplies quickly, survives tons of shit, deadly
What are the disadvantages of using B. anthracis as an agent of bioterrorism?
Early Treatment usually takes care of it