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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Physical forms of chemicals
1. Solid
2. Dust
3. Fume
4. Gas
5. Mist
6. Vapour
7. Liquid
Forms of biological agents
1. Fungi
2. Viruses
3. Bacteria
4. Prions
Classification of chemicals hazardous to health
1. Toxic - Deadly in small doses
2. Harmful - Deadly in large doses
3. Corrosive - Destroy living tissue on contact
4. Irritant - inflammation of the skin or eyes on contact
5. Carcinogenic - May cause cancer when absorbed, inhaled or swallowed
6. Mutagens - Genetic mutations
7. Toxic to reproduction - Effects to unborn baby or sterility
Two main types of sensitising chemicals
Skin sensitisers - Can cause allergic dermatitis
Respiratory sensitisers - Can cause asthma on inhalation
Two main types of dermatitis
Primary dermatitis - Following immediate contact with a primary cutaneous irritant. Only effects area of contact

Secondary dermatitis - Can appear on other parts of the body after immediate, prolonged or repeated contact
Acute and chronic health effects:
Two different types of effects hen someone is exposed to a hazardous substance

Acute - Exposed to high concentrations, effects within seconds/minutes/hours

Chronic - Exposed to low concentrations, effects after weeks/months/years
Four main routes of entry for hazardous substance into the body:
Inhalation - Substance breathed in through nose and mouth down into lungs. (Gas, mist vapour, fume or dust form)

Ingestion - Through the mouth into the digestive system. (Rare to ingest hazardous substance, more cross contamination)

Absorption through skin - Onto tissue beneath then into blood stream

Injection through skin - Through cut/graze or physical injection.
Body defence mechanisms:
RESPIRATORY - Nose, nasal cavity, windpipe, and lungs. The air passes down into the bronchi and bronchioles to the alveoli. Small air sacks where oxygen enters the bloodstream.

Respiratory system is protected by the following:
-Sneeze reflex
-Filtration in the nasal cavity (mucous)
-Ciliary escalator - small hairs in the bronchi and bronchioles that push particles out of the lungs.
-Macrophages - White blood cells that destroy particles lodged in the alveoli.
-Inflammatory response - Scarring of the lung through particles that cannot be removed

SKIN - 2 types of waterproof barrier between the body and the outside world

Epidermis and dermis
Assessment of health risk
6 (similar to 5 steps of R.A)
1. Identify the hazardous substances present and the people who might potentially be exposed
2. Gather information about the substance
3. Evaluate the health risk
4. Identify any controls needed and implement them
5. Record the assessment and action taken
6. Review
Factors to consider when carrying out an assessment of hazardous substance exposure:
1. Hazardous nature of the substance (Is it toxic, corrosive, carcinogenic, etc?)
2. Potential ill health effects to exposure (minor or major from long or short term exposure)
3. Physical forms (Solid, liquid, vapour, dust, fume, etc?)
4. Routes of entry (Is it harmful by inhalation, ingestion, skin absorption etc?)
5. Quantity (how much used, in the area, in storage?)
6. Concentration of the substance (Used neat or diluted, any substance airborne?)
7. Number of people exposed (and vulnerable people)
8. Frequency of exposure (once a week, once a day or continuously?)
9. Duration of exposure (Brief or last several hours of the day?)
10. Control measures in place (P.P.E, LEV’s)
Sources of information for hazardous substance
MSDS (Material safety data sheet)
Product label
Exposure limit reference documents
Information on a product label
1. Name of the substance/preparation
2. Some idea of the components that make the product hazardous
3. An indication of the danger, through symbols, warning phrases, or both.
4. Basic precautions to take (things to avoid or P.P.E to wear)
5. Name, address, telephone number of the supplier
Information on a MSDS
1. Identification of the substance or preparation and supplier - including name, address and emergency contact phone numbers.
2. Composition and information on ingredients - Chemical names.
3. Hazard identification - Most important features, health effects and symptoms.
4. First aid measures
5. Firefighting measures
6. Accidental release measures - covering cleanup and environmental protection
7. Handling and storage - including any special storage conditions and incompatible materials
8. Exposure controls and personal protection - particular ventilation systems and P.P.E
9. Physical and chemical properties
10. Stability and reactivity - conditions and materials to avoid.
11. Toxicological information - acute and chronic effects, roots of exposure and symptoms.
12. Ecological information - effects on the environment
13. Disposal considerations
14. Transport information - special precautions.
15. Other information
Two types of workplace exposure limits
Short term exposure limits - 15 mins (STELS’s)
Long term exposure limits - 8 hours (LTEL’s)
Limitations of exposure limits
1. They do not take account of the synergistic or combined effects of mixtures of substances e.g the use of multiple substances.

2. Invalid if normal environmental conditions are changed e.g changes in temperature, humidity or pressure may increase the harmful potential of a substance.

3. Sometimes limits are guidelines

4. The monitoring equipment may become contaminated, resulting in inaccurate results.
Control measures for hazardous exposure (ERICPD)
Eliminate: prevent exposure
Reduce: Time of exposure
Isolate:Enclose hazard completely
Controls (engineering) - Local Exhaust Ventilation System
Discipline (I.T.I.S, S.S.O.W)
Personal hygiene - washing/changing, creams, vaccinations
Health surveillance
Limitations of gloves
1. Size/fit
2. Damaged gloves - holes
3. Loss of feeling/grip
4. Allergies
A typical LEV system consists of:
Intake hood - Draws air from workplace in immediate vicinity of the contaminant
Ductwork - That carries the air from the intake hood
A filter system - Cleans contaminant from air to an acceptable level
A fan - provides the motive force to move air through the system
Exhaust duct - discharges clean air to atmosphere
Effectiveness of LEV system can be reduced by:
Poorly positioned intake hoods
Damaged ducts
Excessive amounts of contamination
Ineffective fan due to low speed or lack of maintenance
Blocked filters
Build up of contaminants in the ducts
Unauthorised additions to the system
Different types of respirator
1. Filtering face-piece respirator - simplest, Covering nose and mouth with elastic round head
2. Half mask or our-nasal respirator - covering lower face, nose and mouth with 1 or 2 cartridges that contain filtering material
3. Full face respirator - Similar to half mask but has built in visor that seals the eyes and face, care must be taken to select the correct filters
4. Powered respirator - powered fan blows filtered air to the user. Be careful when selecting filters
Different types of Breathing apparatus
1. Fresh air hose BA - Long hose attached to mask leading to fresh air
2. Compressed air BA - similar to fresh air hose instead through a small bore hose at high pressure then controlled by a regulator and supplied at low pressure to users face mask
3. Self contained BA - Breathable air cylinder worn by the user
Other types of P.P.E
Hand protection - Gloves, gauntlets
Eye protection - Safety spectacles, safety goggles, face visor
Body protection - Overalls, Aprons, Whole body (hazmat)
2 types of health surveillance
Health monitoring - examined for symptoms of signs of disease
Biological monitoring - blood, urine or breath sample to be analysed for present of agent itself
Health effects of asbestos
Asbestosis - Fibres lodged deep in the lungs and cause scar tissue formation
Lung cancer - Fibres in the lung trigger development of cancerous browns
Mesothelioma - Fibres migrate through the lung into cavities around the lung, Fatal
Waste management hierarchy
5 R’s
Recovery (energy)
Responsible disposal (Landfill, Incinerator, third parties)
Waste management
4 steps
Step 1: Identify the waste
-non hazardous?
-clinical waste?
-inert waste?

Step 2: Storage/Separation
-On a concrete surface (impervious)
-Waste separation
-Security of the waste (fences, locked)
-Vehicle space to operate
-Liquid waste (Labeled, sealed containers, surrounded by bund with barriers and 110% leakage)
-Emergency arrangements (Spill kits)
-Waste transfer notes (WTN’s)

Step 3: Transport
-Driver (competent/licence)
-Waste transfer notes (WTN’s)
-Type of vehicle
-Licensed contractor

Step 4: Disposal
-Third party
-Recycling centre