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44 Cards in this Set

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studied the classical world, especially Rome, Interested in reason and the individual


diplomacy based on national interests rather than principles. Forget ethics.


State governed by a "prince"

I.E. a monarchy


State governed by representatives of the people

Hereditary Principality

authority is handed down from one generation to the next

Acquired principality

authority is acquired through 1) conquering a state, 2) fortune or luck

Virtu (according to Machiavelli)

military strength, but also audacity, cruelty to achieve goals, manliness; dependent on violence, chaos, and disorder

Stock characters

Character sterotype

Mimetic desire

imitating someone else’s desires; you love the thing your friend loves because s/he loves it


(n.) character that serves to contrast, call attention to another character’s qualities;

(v.) enhance by contrast


when the opposite of what you expect happens


Sudden reversal of fortune

Verbal Irony

meaning differs sharply from what the speaker says

Stable Irony

the author’s real meaning is clearly implied

Unstable Irony

difficulty determining the author’s real views or even determining whether he or she is being ironic

Dramatic Irony

when the audience knows something that the characters do not. (Proteus is not trustworthy!)


refers to literature about people who live in nature, typically shepherds

Prince should seek extreme situations in order to promote his own greatness (and power)


Virtu- extremes and control


Fear as a method of controlling people


Fear is a greater tool of control than love

“From this arises and argument… whether is better to be loved or feared… much safer to be feared than love when one has to be lacking…”

Usefulness of cruelty


Why should you avoid hatred?


Who is the best kind of prince? (Actors!) Why?


What make a prince great?


Know some of the biographical details about Shakespeare's life

Born in Stratford-upon-Avon 1564; Married Anne Hathaway; Wrote up to 40 plays, 154 sonnets, and a few narrative poems

What playwrights influenced Shakespeare?


What do Valentine and Proteus's names signify?

Valentine=Strong & pathos;

Proteus=Changeable & ethos

What is the most valued relationship in Renaissance England?

Male friendship

What characters fall for mimetic desire?



How does love deform people?

Speed said this since it’s like an oxymoron - putting together two (or more) contradictory terms?

How are letters used in this play?

play games to tease love - Julia pretends to not want the letter from Proteus and Silvia asks Valentine to write a letter to the one she loves then gives the letter back to him

How do the servants foil the previous scenes with their masters?

Lance’s speech about leaving foils Julia’s departure from Proteus; Speed and Lance’s reunion parallels Valentine and Proteus’s

How does Proteus betray Valentine?


Be able to idetify the various ways Shakespeare uses "shadow" as a metaphor


Valentine's beautiful speech about Silvia ("What light is light...")


In love, Lance's emphasis on practicality undermines the chivalric romance of Valentine's speech about Silvia


How is Proteus Machiavellian?


What ar ethe outlaws a parody of?

Robin Hood - noble men with principles banished in the woods

Why does Julia dress like a boy?

Proteus employs her to woo Silvia

Why is rape Machiavellian?

Rape is associated with power and tyranny

What are some of the ways that we can interpret Valentine's forgiveness of Proteus?

1. Unconditional forgiveness, most common interpretation

2. Farce, played with such silliness that the characters seem shallow and ridiculous

3. Ironic, Valentine acts in such a way that the words mean the opposite of what they say

Religious political symbols in Valentine's forgiveness

Repentance and Penitence

How does Julia use the ring to reveal herself?

“accidentally” produces the ring that Proteus gave to her