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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Characteristics of Romanticism
Emphasis on Individual, Imagination, nature, feelings and emotion of artist
Historical Context of Romanticism
Reaction to Enlightenment, The Industrial Revolution, The French Revolution, Nationalism, Intellectual Fervent
American Humanities vs. European Humanities
Americans painted landscapes, depended on Europeans, their music was mainly hymns and patriotic sounds
Beethoven
Pioneer of Musical Romanticism
Is Romantic because of delivery of personal emotions
Byron
Work was characterized by frenzy, activity
Committed to struggle for liberty
Living symbol of unconventional, homeless, tormented Romantic hero
Cole
Laid foundations of Hudson River School Style
Painted Genesee Scenery
Constable
English Painter
Warm, Deep love of nature
Painted Hay Wain
Conveys physical beauties of landscape with less tangible aspects of natural world
Delacroix
Painted Massacre of Chios, The Death of Sardanapalus
USed Color to create form
Conveys intensity of his imagination
Darwin
On the Origin of Species
Very Controversial
Bel Canto
"Beautiful Singing" What Italians were into at time...Revived by Verdi
Scherzo
Literally means joke. Beethoven replaced the minuet of third movement of "Eroica" with this. Describes a fast-moving, generally lighthearted piece. Introduction of this illustrates his democratization of the symphony
Lieder
600 songs written by Schubert
Nocturne
Short piano piece where expressive, often melancholy, melody floats over a murmuring accompaniment; popularized by Chopin
Gesamtkuntwerk
German term invented by Wagner
Means Complete Artwork
Describe Combination
Leitmotiv
a tone associated w each character in an opera.
Introduced by Wagner
Marx
Associated with Realism
Considered most influential on contemporary art
The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters
Etching by Goya
"Dreams are way of releasing mind from constraints of everyday experience and bringing to surface those dark visions reason had submerged
Etching by Goya
"Dreams are way of releasing mind from constraints of everyday experience and bringing to surface those dark visions reason had submerged
Execution of the Madrilenos
By Goya, doesn't try to idealize it; protest against human cruelty; romantic because it conveys his emotion
By Goya, doesn't try to idealize it; protest against human cruelty; romantic because it conveys his emotion
Charles IV of Spain and His Family
Modeled on Las Meninas
Radiates arrogance, vanity, stupidity rather than grace and elegance
Communicates disgust at court life
Modeled on Las Meninas
Radiates arrogance, vanity, stupidity rather than grace and elegance
Communicates disgust at court life
Saturn Devouring One of His Sons
By Goya Shows Dark Side
Raft of the Medusa
Painted by Gericault
Looks at incompetence of ship's officers
Painted by Gericault
Looks at incompetence of ship's officers
Massacre at Chios
Painted by Delacroix
Painted to raise indignation of people
Some people dubbed it the "Massacre of Painting
Painted by Delacroix
Painted to raise indignation of people
Some people dubbed it the "Massacre of Painting
Hay Wain
Painted by Constable; English
Conveys sense of less tangible aspects of natural world
Painted by Constable; English
Conveys sense of less tangible aspects of natural world
The Slave Ship
Painted by Turner
Uses light, color, movement to erase every  trace of material world
Deals with social disgrace
Painted by Turner
Uses light, color, movement to erase every trace of material world
Deals with social disgrace
Symphony No. 3 Beethoven
"Eroica" "The Heroic Symphony" Written for Napoleon; Creates a "heroic world" in sound
Symphony No. 9 by Beethoven
Last Movement preaches universal brotherhood and inspired listeners "Ode to Joy"
Is the most complete statement of the human striving to conquer all obstacles and win through to universal peace and joy
The Ring of the Nibelung
By Wagner; most monumental achievement
Represents end of the world
Eakins
Painted Swimming and Miss Van Buren
Used realism
Fascinated with humans in motion
Gericault
Painted Raft of The Medusa
Succeeded by Delacroix
Rejected classical idealism
Heade
American painter that used luminism, which gives artistic anonymity paintings, that seemed to foreshadow Surrealist art
Painted Lake George
Homer
American that also used Luminism
Painted Eagle Head, which shows restrained drama and emotional depth
Had obsession with the sea
Moussorgsky
Greatest of five Russian composers; Placed greater emphasis on native musical traditions; made opera Boris Godunov
Smetana
Czech composer; made nationalist works; Made Vltava... about the course of a river as it flows through the capital
Turner
Painted the Slave Ship
Companion to Constable
Used light, color, and movement to represent cosmic union of elements so every trace of material world dissapears
Chopin
Very very Romantic especially because of ability to express emotions; dated George Sand; Music exploited Nocturne
Dickens
English writer
Oliver Twist - Treatment of poor in workouses
Hard Times - Pointed our evils of industrialization and misguided education
Goethe
Known for Sturm and Drang - emphasis on originality, imagination, feelings
Wrote the Sorrows of Young Werther
-Symbol of his ability to communicate emotion
Best known for Faust
Goya
Painted The Sleep of Reason
Execution of the Madrilenos
The family of Charles IV
Saturn
Compared to Beethoven
Hugo
Realist who used the real world to make Les Miserables
Romantic because of high-flown rhetoricstyle, but used immense detail to describe squalor
Paganini
Greatest violinist of age, if not all time
Won reputation in public performances
Illustrates Europe's obsession with music as emotional expression
Schubert
Wrote the 6 hundred LIEDER (songs)
Made the unfinished symphony
Finest music was written for smaller groups of instruments
Shelley, Percy
English poet who probed more passionate, demonic aspects of existence
Lived life of continual turmoil
Greatest work: Prometheus unbound
Thoreau
Made Walden
Was transcendentalist
Supported freedom of individual
Tolstoy
Wrote War and Peace and Anna Karenina
Let his characters meet real people
Was Romantic because of high regard for irrationality and contempt for reason
Verdi
Revived Bel Canto
Best-loved of all opera composers
Added character complexity and dramatic truth
Strengthened Italian nationalism
Produced Otello, considered supreme work Italian Opera
Whitman
America's first great poet
Wrote Leaves of Grass
Had theme of importance of individual
Wordsworth
English Romantic Poet who explored nature
Caked founder of Romantic movement in poetry
Hudson River School
Collective name of earliest American painters of landscape
Wanted to glorify nature
Transcendentalists
Promoted unity of humans and nature
Wagner
Put emphasis on drama and orchestra
Made Complete Artworks
Abolished separation between recitatives (in which action was advanced) and arias