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137 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
CNS
The Central Nervous System consisting of Brain and Spinal Cord
Nuclei
cluster of cell bodies in the CNS
Tract
bundles of axon forming a pathway
PNS
The Peripheral Nervous System that consists of everything else such as ganglia, receptors, bundles of axon of sensory and motor neurons
Ganglia
cluster of cell bodies in the PNS
Neuron
cells that sends signals to other cells using chemical or electrical potentials
Glial cells
ensures neurons are functioning the way they should be, but do not carry electrical signals over long distances
Neurotransmitters
chemicals secreted by neurons that diffuse through a small gap to the target cell
Soma
also known as the cell body which contains the nucleus and all the biosynthetic machinery. this is the center of the chemical process that keeps cell functioning and alive
Dendrites
slender processes that receives information and transmits chemical signals TOWARDS the soma
Axon
cytoplasmic extensions that sends out information, transmitting electrical impulses AWAY from the Soma
Axon Terminal
end of the axon (connection between neuron and other cells)
trigger Zone
axon hillock which is the integrating center of the neuron
Myelin
a layer of schwann cells that acts as an electrical insulator
Schwann cells
special glial cells that wrap around the axon
Node of Ranvier
the parts of an axon where there are breaks in the myelin sheath
Afferent Neurons
sensory neurons that receives information from receptor cells transmitting the information to the CNS; long cytoplasmic estensions that transmits information to interneurons
Receptors
converts stimuli and transmit information to afferent neurons
Efferent Neuron
motor neurons that receves information form interneurons located within the CNS; where the cytoplamic extensions transmits information to effectors
Interneurons
located in the CNS and transits information signals with the CNS (in spinal cord or brain)
Synapse
region where the axon terminal communicates with its postsynaptic target cell
Presynaptic Neuron
neuron from the synapse where signal was transmitted from
Posysynaptic Neuron
neuron at the synapse where the signal is received
Astoglia
glial cells part of the CNS which are small star shaped and makes contact with blood vessels an neurons to transmit nutrients helping to maintain homeostasis
Microglial
in CNS small cells that are specialized immune cells to remove damaged cells and foreign invaders
Oligodendrites
is the CNS version of schwann cells that wraps around the neuron to form myelin
Depolarization
a decrease in membrane potential that cases the cell to be less negative
Hyperpolarization
an increase in the membrane potential that cause the cell to become more negative
Repolarization
moving or regaining resting potential
Graded Potential
can be depolarizing and hyperpolarizing; the amplitude of the potential is proportional to the strength of the trigger and it only travels short distances
Action Potential
are either on or off (must reach threshold -55mV) and the strength does not diminsih as they travel long distance
threshold Potential
the minimum depolarization necessary to trigger an action potential (-55 mV)
All-or-none
electrical signal must reach threshold or else no signal or action will be produced
Relative-refractory Period
requires a large superthreshold stimulus in order to trigger an action potential
Absolute-refractory Period
period where no action potential can be conducted
Saltatory Conduction
action potential jumping from one node of ranvier to the next which causes stimulus to travel down axon faster
IPSP (Inhibitory Post Synaptic Potential)
hyperpolarizing graded potential that decrease the chance of exciting the axon
EPSP (Excitory Post Synaptic Potential)
depolarizing graded potential that increases the chance of exciting the axon
Synaptic Vesicle
vessels that store neurotransmitters that are released into the synapse
Temporal summation
summations that occurs from graded potentials that overlaps in time
Spatial summation
current of nearby stimulus graded potentials combine
Acetylcholine
type of neurotransmitter that react with muscarinic and nicotinic cholinergic receptors
Norepinephrine
biogenic neurotransmitter that is synthesized in the axon terminal and packaed accepted by adrenergic receptors
Nicotinic
chloinergic channel receptor tat produces fast response
Muscarinic
chloinergic G protein receptor tha produces a slow response
receptor types
G-protein and channels
Physiology
the study of structure and functions of a living organism and the componetn parts
Organ system
tissues that form structural and functional units known as organs and groups of organs integrate their functions
Homeostasis
the maintenance of a relatively stable internal environment
Set Point
adaptation of physiological processes to a given environment condition
Circadian Rhythm
control mechanism for homeostasis
Reflex Control
long distance pathways that use nervous systems, endocrine systems or both
Negative feedback
pathway where response opposes or removes signal and restoring the normal state
Positive Feedback
response reinforces the stimulus to become further away from the normal
Feedforward Regulation
anticipatory control where predictions of change is going to happen and starts response to prevent change
Cell memebrane
barrier that controls what enters and exits the cell
Gap Junction
also known as direct cell-to-cell communication where adjacent cells communicate via protein channels called conexions
Tight Junction
junction that restricts material movement between cells that are linked together
Anchoring junction
cells attaached to each other on the extracellular matrix wchich has CAMs that binds signal molecules and transfers information across cell
Epithelia
to protect internal environment from external environment in an individual
Connective Tissue
provides structral support and barriers
Muscle
allowing ability to contract to produce force and movement
Neural
cells that carries information from one part of the body to another
Paracrine
chemical that are released from one cell reacts on other cells that are close
Autocrine
chemicals that are released act on itself
Receptors
transmembrane proteins that are found on the plasma membrane that transfers signals
Competition
activity of multiple things that desires the same thing
Down-regulation
process where cells decrease quantity of cellular components
Up-regulation
process where cells are increasing the quantity of cellular components
Skeletal Muscles
attached to the bones of the skeleton controlling the body’s movement
Smooth Muscle
primary muscle in internal organs and tubes that influences movement of materials through the body
Cardiac Muscle
pumps to move blood around the body
Tendons
muscles that are composed of collagens that attaches bones and muscles together
Striated Muscles
contractible fibrils in cells that are aligned in parallel bundles
Myofibrils
functional units of skeletal muscle
Muscle fibre
muscle cells found in fascicle
Thick Filament
about 250 myosin molecules that are joint together
Myosin
two coiled proteins molecules that have a head and tail region joined together by a flexible joint
Thin Filament
made up of actin
Z-line
site of attachment for thin filaments
I band
region containing only thin filament
A band
region containing thing and thick filament
H-zone
part of A band and only contains thick filament
M Line
site of attachment for thick filament
Cross-bridge
interactions of myosin head with actin filament
Acclimatization
the adaptation of physiological processes to a given set of environmental conditions
Local control
a control mechanism in homeostasis
Acclimatization
adaption of physiological function to a given set of environment
Local Control
control mechanism for homeostasis where it restricts certain cells and tissues
What are the five types of epithelial cells?
Ciliated, Protected, Secretory, Exchange and Transport
ciliated Epithelia Cells
found in airways and female reproductive system
Secretory Epithelia Cells
synthesize and release products into external environment
Exchange Epithelia Cells
rapid exchange of materials in the respiratory system
Transporting Epithelia cells
selective transport of materials
Protective Epithelia Cells
found on the surface of the body
What are the five types of Connective Tissue?
Dense, Loose, Adipose, Blood and Supporting
Dense Connective Tissue
primary function of strength such as tendons and ligaments
Loose Connective Tissue
elastic tissues under the skin
Adipose Connective Tissue
contains adipocytes (fat)
Blood Connective Tissue
watery matrix without insoluble protein fibres
Supporting connective Tissues
Dense substances such as bones and cartilage
What are the 6 levels of living organisms?
Chemical, Cellular, Tissue, Organs, Organ system, Organism
What are the four types of cell-cell communication?
Gap Junction, contact dependent communication, Local Communication and Long-distance communication
Why do not all cells respond to chemical signals?
It is because they do not have the correct receptors
What are the three different types of receptors?
Extracelluar Domain, Intracellular Domain and Trans-membrane domain
Extracellular Domain receptors
involves binding of ligand
Trans-membrane domain receptors
for hydrophobic molecules
Intracellular Domain receptors
involves activating cellular response
Agonists
acts like the ligand and activates the response
Antagonist
blocks the ligand and prevents binding to receptors
Response to chemical Ligand
signal molecules bind to receptor and activates receptors interacting with the molecules inside cell and starts signal. The signal is then carried to right places for signal transduction causing a response
What are the different parts of the Neuron?
Soma, dendrites, axon and axon terminal
Psudounipolar neurons
somativ sensory nurons
Bipolar Neurons
for vison and smell containing single axon and dendrite
Anaxonic Neuron
only in the CNS and has no axon
Multipolar Neuron
in CNS and has many dendrites with long axon
What are the PNS glial cells?
Schwann and Satellite cells
Satellite cells
supports the axon and does not form a myelin sheath
What are the CNS Glial Cells?
Oligodendria, Astroglia, Microglial and Ependymal Cells
Oligodendria
CNS version of schwann cells
Sodium Activation
when voltage gate for sodium channels to open allowing for action potential
Why is the whole axon not insulated?
it is because even though there are insulation, the strength of the action potential still decreases and it needs to be replenished along the way to the way to the target cell
Saltatory Conduction
conduction down the length of the axon which is faster
Synaptic Cleft
the space between cells
Electrical Synapse
gap junction which allows for direct cell to cell contact existing between neurons and glial cell
Chemical synapse
carried by neurotransmitters for long distance in PNS and is between neuron and effector
Autonomic System
involuntary actions done by the PNS and is broken down into Parasympathetic and sympathetic
Sympathetic
flight or fight response and how a person reacts to stress
Sonmatic System
voluntary actions done by PNS
Autonimic Ganglia
synapse between CNS and effector
Pre-ganglionic
cells leading from CNS to ganglion
Post-ganglionic
cells leading from gangliion to effector
Varicosity
swollen areas at sistanl end of the axon end
Electrical Gradient
net charge between the two regions of the cell
Osmotic gradient
osmotic pressure increases with concentration and solute in solution
Equilibrium State
when tere are no net movement and no electrical gradient
What offsets the tendency of sodium and potassium movement?
The Na+/K+ ATPase offsets the ions that are moving in and out of the cell. This is a form of active transport