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25 Cards in this Set

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Plasma (cell) membrane:

(major cell component)
Structure: Phosolipid bilayer containing cholesterol and proteins (integral and peropheral) and come carbohydrates (externally)

Function: Contains receptors for communication; forms intercellular connections; acts as physical barrier to enclose call contents; regulates material movement into and out of the cell.
Cytoplasm:


(major cell component)
Structure: Contains cytosol, a viscous fluid, and inclusions and organelles

Function: Place of many metabolic processes of the cell; stores nutrients and dissolved solutes.
Organelles:

(major cell component)
Structure: Membrane-bound and non-membrane bound structures that have unique functions and activities.

Function: Carry out specific metabolic activities of the cell.
Inclusions:

(major cell component)
Structure: Droplets of melanin, protein, glycogen granules, or lipid; usually non-membrane-bound.

Function: Store materials
Nucleus

(major cell component)
Structure: Surround by double membrane nuclear envelope (each membrane is a phospholipid bilayer); contains nucleolus and chromatin

Function: Acts as cell control center; controls all genetic info (DNA); site of ribosome subunit assembly.
Nuclear envelope:


(major cell component)
Structure: Double membrane boundary bet cytoplasm and nuclear contents.

Function: Pores in envelope regulate exchange of materials with the assembly.
Nuclear pores:

(major cell component)
Structure: Openings through the nuclear envelope.

Function: Allow for passage of materials bet nucleus and cytoplasm.
Nucleous (or nucleoli):

(major cell component)
Structure: Spherical, dark-staining, dense granular region in the nucleus.

Function: Synthesizes rRNA and assembles ribosomes in the nucleus.
Chromatin and Chromosomes:

(major cell component)
Structure: Filaments association of DNA and histone proteins.

Function: Site of genes in the DNA.
Smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER)

(membrane-bound organelles)
Structure: Interconnected network of membrane tubules and vesicles; no ribosomes.

Function: Synthesizes lipids; metabolizes carbohydrates; detoxifies drugs, alcohol.
Rough ER

(membrane-bound organelles)
Structure: flattened intracellular network of membrane sacs called cisternae; ribosomes attached on cytoplasmic surface

Function: Synthesizes proteins for secretion, new proteins for the plasma membrane, and lysosomal enzymes; transports and stores molecules.
Golgi Apparatus:

(membrane-bound organelles)
Structure: Stacked series of flattened, smooth membrane sacs w/ associated transport vesicles (aka shuttle vesicle)

Function: Modifies, packages, and sorts newly synthesized proteins for secretion, inclusion in new plasma membrane, or lysosomal enzyme synthesis.
Lysosomes:

(membrane-bound organelles)
Structure: Membrane sacs w/ digestive enzymes

Function: Digest materials or microbes ingested by the cell: remove old/damaged organelles; self-destruct (autolyze)
Peroxisomes:

(membrane-bound organelles)
Structure: membrane-enclosed sacs; usually contain large amounts of specific enzymes to break down harmful substances.

Function: Convert hydrogen peroxide formes during metabolism to water.
Mitochondria:

(membrane-bound organelles)
Structure: Double membrane structures with cristae; fluid matrix contents at center.

Function: Synthesizes most ATP during cellular respiration, "powerhouse or the cell"
Ribosomes:

(non-membrane bound organelle)
Structure: Dense cytoplasmic granules with 2 subunits (large and small) may be free in cytoplasm (free ribosomes) or bound to rough ER (fixed ribosomes)

Function: synthesize proteins for"
1) use in the cell (free ribosomes)
2) secretion, incorporation into plasma membrane, or lysosomes (fixed ribosomes)
Cytoskeleton:

(non-membrane bound organelle)
Structure: Organized network of protein filaments or hollow tubules throughout the cell.

Function: Provides structural support; facilitates cytoplasm streaming, organelle and cellular motility, transport of materials and cell division.
Microfilaments:

(non-membrane bound organelle)
Structure: Actin protein monomers formed into filaments.

Function: Maintain cell shape; aid in muscle contraction and intracellular movement; separate dividing cells
Intermediate filaments:

(non-membrane bound organelle)
Structure: various protein components

Function: provide structural support; stabilize cell junctions
Microtubules:
(non-membrane bound organelle)
Structure: Hollow cylinders of tubulin protein; able to lengthen and shorten

Function: support cell; hold organelles in place; maintain cell shape and rigidity; direct organelle movement w/in cell and cell motility as cilia and flagella; move chromosomes as cell division.
Centrosome:

(non-membrane-bound organelle)
Structure: amorphous region adjacent to nucleus; contain a pair of centrioles

Function: Organize microtubules; participates in spindle fiber formation during cell division.
Centrioles:

(non-membrane bound organelle)
Structure: Paired perpendicular cylindrical bodies; composed of microtubule triplets.

Function: Organize microtubules during cell division for movement of chromosome
Cilia:

(non-membrane bound organelle)
Structure: Short, membrane-attached projections containing microtulubles; occur in large #'s on exposed membrane surfaces.

Function: Move fluid, mucus, and materials over the cell surface.
Flagellum:

(non-membrane bound organelle)
Structure: Long, singular membrane extension containing microtubules.

Function: Propels sperm cells in human male.
Microvilli:

(non-membrane bound organelle)
Structure: Numerous thin membrane folds projecting from the free cell surface.

Function: Increase membrane surface area for increased absorption and/or secretion.