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14 Cards in this Set

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Pharmacodynamics & Pharmacokinetics

Pharmacodynamics – the biological and physiological effects of the drug.



Pharmacokinetics – the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of the drug (ADME).
When

Where do the drugs bind in order to act?

1. Receptors for endogenous substances (hormones, neurotransmitters, growth factors)
2. Transport molecules
3. Ion channels
4. Enzymes

Agonist or Antagonist (RECEPTORS)

Agonist: produces same results as natural substance would



Antagonist: prevents natural substance from binding

Examples of drugs that act at receptors and concept of affinity

• Opioid analgesics


• Beta blockers


• Bronchodilators


• Tamoxifen


• Antihistamines



Drug with high affinity, binds to receptor well!!

Ion channels

All major ions have specific channels (e.g K, Na, Ca)



We can control the opening and closing



• Benzodiazepines • Alcohol • Calcium channel blockers • Anaesthetics


sedating drugs

Enzymes

• Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)
• Statins
• ACE inhibitors
Inhibit or act as a false substitute

Transporters

Inhibit or act as a false substitute




• Specific serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)


• Proton pump inhibitors


• Cocaine



Pharmacokinetics

ABSORBTION



DISTRIBUTION



METABOLISM (liver.. converts it to water form)



EXCRETION (kidney)

BIOAVAILABILITY

The bioavailability of a drug is the percentage of the administered dose that is expected to arrive in the bloodstream and be available to act.

Pharmacokinetic interactions and pharmakodynamic interactions

increase or decrease affect, compete, slow down the process

Antimicrobials + anti-cancer agents

Chemotherapy


The use of chemicals to destroy pathogens which have invaded the body.
It includes the use of chemicals to destroy our own cells which have become malignant.



Exploit fundamental difference between healthy cells and those trying to kill you

knowing your enemy

Bacteria (membrane, protein synthesis, cell wall synthesis)



Fungi (cell membrane, cell wall)



Virus ( uncoating, copying genetic material, budding off)

Drug resistance

drug efflux pump



alteration of binding site



Enzymatic degradation

Drugs acting on nervous system

manipulate at chemical transmitting


agonist or antagonist



A number of disorders are now thought to be due to inadequate or excessive levels of neurotransmitters



work at the synapse