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26 Cards in this Set

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Evidence in support of a genetic contribution to personality would be if personality characteristics of identical twins reared apart were similar to




a. identical twins reared together


b. fraternal twins reared together


c. fraternal twins reared apart


d. siblings reared apart

a. identical twins reared together

The text suggests that




a. evidence of inheritance does not mean environment is unimportant


b. evidence of inheritance does not mean temperament is fixed


c. evidence of inheritance does not mean early experience is unimportant


d. all of the above

d. all of the above

The concept of evolved psychological mechanisms suggests that




a. psychological mechanisms have endured because of their adaptive value


b. psychological mechanisms have evolved to fit the challenge of modern society


c. both (a) and (b)


d. neither (a) nor (b)

a. psychological mechanisms have endured because of their adaptive value

Evolutionary factors have been suggested as important




a. in sex differences in mate preferences


b. sex differences in causes of jealousy


c. both a and b


d. neither a nor b

c. both a and b

Parenthood probability theory suggests that




a. females will be more concerned about rivals than males


b. males will be more concerned about rivals than females


c. males and females will be equally concerned about rivals


d. genetic counseling procedures are useful

b. males will be more concerned about rivals than females

According to Buss's hypotheses




a. males should prefer young, attractive women


b. females should prefer strong, ambitious men


c. males should be more concerned than females about sexual infidelity


d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Which of the following is not a method used to establish genetic-behavior relationships?




a. selective breeding


b. twin studies


c. adoption studies


d. DNS studies

d. DNS studies

Heritability estimates might differ if




a. different populations were studied


b. different measures of h2 were used


c.different aspects of the same trait were studied


d. all of the above

d. all of the above

Nonshared environments include




a. parts of sibling family environments


b. aspects of sibling non-familial environments


c. both a and b


d. neither a nor b

c. both a and b

Recent research suggests that children from the same family are so different because of




a. different genes


b. nonshared environmental influences


c. both a and b


d. neither a nor b

c. both a and b

According to the dominant approach in evolutionary psychology, culture …




a) Plays almost no role in the development of our psychological characteristics


b) Plays a moderate role in the development of our psychological characteristics


c) Plays a substantial role in the development of our psychological characteristics


d) Accounts for almost all of our psychological characteristics

a) Plays almost no role in the development of our psychological characteristics

Research in the field of evolutionary psychology on the topic of social exchange suggests that people have evolved specific mechanisms to detect…




a) Behaviours in which people cheat


b) Behaviours in which people express sexual interest


c) How to escape from most situations


d) How they are perceived by others

a) Behaviours in which people cheat

5. The theory that proposes there are different ‘costs’ or levels of investment associated with reproduction and parenting for men compared to women is called the…




a) Reproduction investment theory


b) Parental investment theory


c) Parental exchange theory


d) Offspring circumstances theory

b) Parental investment theory

Biologically, females have a limited fertility period and can bear only one child per year. Given this, females have developed a mate preference for…




a) Men with few resources who also want to let the mother raise the child


b) Men with good resources and a background in midwifery, but with no desire to help raise the child


c) Men with good resources who can look after them while pregnant and who will help them raise the child


d) Women, because lesbianism is the new black

c) Men with good resources who can look after them while pregnant and who will help them raise the child

7. Since females have a limited fertility period and can only give birth to one child per year, men have developed a preference for female mates with…




a) Broad shoulders and turned-out feet


b) Brown hair and blue eyes


c) Small breasts and a large waist


d) Youthful appearance and an appropriate hip-to-waist ratio

d) Youthful appearance and an appropriate hip-to-waist ratio

8. Thanks to biological evolution, _________ should generally be more concerned about sexual infidelity.




a) Males


b) Females

a) Males

9. According to evolutionary psychology, _________ should value chastity more than _________.




a) Males; females


b) Females; males

a) Males; females

________ are argued to be specific to situations but ________ are argued to be general across situations.




a) Traits; evolved psychological mechanisms


b) Evolved psychological mechanisms; traits

b) Evolved psychological mechanisms; traits

In terms of sex differences and the provision of resources, how much variance is there between cultures?


a) None


b) A little


c) A moderate amount


d) A large amount

d) A large amount

A field of psychology dedicated to describing and understanding the influence of genes on psychological characteristics and behaviour is known as…




a) Genetic behaviourism


b) Epigenetic cognition


c) Evolutionary neurology


d) Behavioural genetics

d) Behavioural genetics

Twin studies are used to estimate the genetic contribution to psychological characteristics.


The process usually involves comparing…




a) Monozygotic twins with each other and their classmates


b) Monozygotic twins with their dizygotic twin children


c) Monozygotic twins with dizygotic twins


d) Monozygotic twins with probiotic twins

c) Monozygotic twins with dizygotic twins

The heritability coefficient provides…




a) An estimate of the amount of variance in a trait that occurs due to genetic factors in a given population


b) An estimate of the amount of variance in a trait that occurs due to genetic and environmental factors in a given population


c) An estimate of the amount of variance in a trait that occurs due to environmental factors in a given population


d) An estimate of the amount of traits that occur due to genetic factors in a given population

An estimate of the amount of variance in a trait that occurs due to genetic factors in a given population

15. The shared environment is __________ and accounts for about ____ of the variance in personality.




a) The unique lived experiences of each individual (e.g. different treatment by parents, friends etc.); 5%


b) The common experience as a result of growing up in the same family; 35%


c) The unique lived experiences of each individual (e.g. different treatment by parents, friends etc.); 35%


d) The common experience as a result of growing up in the same family; 5%

d) The common experience as a result of growing up in the same family; 5%

The heritability coefficient is represented by




a. H1


b. H0


c. H2


d. Hh

c. H2

The heritability coefficient is represented by a number which can range from




a. 1 to 100


b. 0 to 1


c. 1 to 10


d. -1 to 1

b. 0 to 1

The non-shared environment accounts for about __________ of the variance in personality

a. 5%
b. 35%
c. 40%
d. 60%

b. 35%