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32 Cards in this Set

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1. The Treaty of Utrecht ceded Gibraltar and Minorca to which European nation?
England
2. The Bourbon reform reached its climax under which monarch?
Charles III
3. What was a characteristic of the thought and policies of the 18th century Spanish Enlightenment?
A rigid orthodoxy in religion and politics
4. What was one reason for the failure of the Bourbon reforms to achieve their goals?
Opposition of conservatives to a much-needed land reform
5. What was the first breach in the monopoly of the Cádiz merchant guild over trade to Spanish America?
Organization of the Caracas Company
6. What was a characteristic of the economy of Spanish America in the late Bourbon period?
A trend toward regional specialization and monoculture in the production of cash crops
7. Why was there a decline of Spanish colonial manufacturing in the late 18th century?
Suffered a decline as a result of competition from foreign goods
8. In the late 18th century, the importance of debt servitude and the rigor of its enforcement depended on what?
The availability of labor
9. The intendant system was introduced in the late 18th century to increase what?
Increase royal revenues from the Spanish colonies
10. The organization and curricula of Spanish American colonial universities were closely patterned on those of which university?
University of Salamanca in Spain
11. Who wrote the Royal Commentaries of the Inca, a work that continues to influence our image of the Inca Empire?
Garcilaso de la Vega
12. Which clergy made the most skillful effort to reconcile church dogma and Enlightenment ideas?
The Jesuits
13. Who wrote the monumental General History of the Things of New Spain, a veritable encyclopedia of Aztec culture?
Bernardino de Sahagún
14. How did the great revolt of Tupac Amaru begin?
With the execution of the corregidor Antonio de Arriaga
15. Why did Bourbon Spain fail to reconquer its colonial trade?
Because of its own national industrial weakness and its failure to keep sea-lanes open during wartime
16. Why was the Quito Insurrection of 1765 different than most 18th century revolts?
Because it was a revolt that united elites, artisans, and shopkeepers against royal taxes and monopolies
1. In the late 18th century, how was the conflict of interests between Spain and its colonies most sharply expressed?
In the cleavage between creoles and peninsulars
2. What was one factor responsible for the spread of Enlightenment ideas in the Spanish colonies?
The circulation of scientific texts based on the theories of Descartes, Newton, and Leibnitz
3. How did the success of a slave revolt in Haiti affect the creole elites?
It dampened interest in independence among creole elites
4. What was one important consequence of Spain’s alliance with Napoleon against England?
Spain’s opening of Spanish American ports to trade with neutral nations
5. What did creole leaders do as a result of Napoleon’s decision to place his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne?
They prepared to seize power on the pretext of loyalty to Ferdinand VII
6. What was a major difference between the American Revolution and the Latin American struggle for independence?
The latter lacked the popular base provided by the more democratic society of the English colonies
7. What did the Venezuelan constitution of 1811 abolish?
It abolished indigenous tribute
8. Why did the Venezuelan llaneros initially support the royalist cause?
Because the Venezuelan republic attempted to transform them into semi servile peons
9. What was a distinctive feature of Bolívar’s military leadership?
It was his advancement of soldiers for merit, without regard to social background or color
10. What was Bolívar’s vision for the political program for Venezuela?
A republican regime with suffrage restricted to the propertied elite
11. Where was the last major battle of the Spanish American wars for independence fought?
At Ayacucho, Peru, December 9, 1824
12. What event precipitated Brazil’s declaration of independence?
The refusal of Dom Pedro to obey the order of the Cortés that he returns to Portugal
13. What distinguished the Hidalgo revolt in Mexico from other Latin American revolutions?
The large-scale participation of the indigenous and mixed-blood proletariat
14. Did the Latin American wars of independence leave the existing economic and social structures basically intact?
Yes
15. Who was Toussaint L’Ouverture?
A former slave who led the Haitian Revolution in its demand for the abolition of slavery
16. Who was the woman who saved Bolívar’s life, known as “La Libertadora” (the female liberator)?
Manuela Saenz