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37 Cards in this Set

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Endocrine Cell
4 main hormone types
1. peptides & proteins (insulin, FSH, GH)
synthesized by rER, stored in cytoplasmic granules
and exocytosed when required
2. Steroids (oestrogens, glucocorticoids)
derived from cholesterol
synthesised in mitochondria & rER, not stored but
released via diffusion
3.Tyrosine/amine-derived (dopamine, serotonin, epinephrine) synthesized from tyrosine stored in granules & released via exocytosis (thyroid hormones) stored extracellularly in colloid-filled cavities 4. Fatty acid derivatives (prostoglandins, leukotrienes) synthesized by rER stored in granules & released via exocytosis
HYPOTHALAMO-HYPOPHYSEAL PORTAL CIRCULATION
Hypothalamus – neurosecretory neurons synthesize hormones which are transported to pituitary via vessels and axons
Anterior Pituitary Gland
- 3 parts
derived from developing oral cavity
contains epithelial cells

- sinusoidal cappilaries in pars intermedia
POSTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND
neurohypothesus
1. stalk; infundibulum
2. pars..
Histology: LOW power
Pituitary
BLOOD SUPPLY TO PITUITARY GLAND
pars distalis
•Cells arranged in clumps or cords
•Separated by fenestrated sinusoidal capillaries
•Classified by their histochemical staining quality
•Accurate differentiation requires immunocytochemical staining
[pars distalis
Pars distalis
Pars Distalis = secretory cells and sinusoidal capillaries
- how to Dd b/w the secretory cells?
electron microscope image of secretory cells in adenohypophysis
electron microscope image of sinusoidal capillary in the adenohypophysis
ADENOHYPOPHYSIS
pars distalis
- % cell types
ADENOHYPOPHYSIS
pars intermedia
Colloid-filled FOLLICLES
FOLLICLE CELLS (epithelial)
- secrete MSH and endorphin
ADENOHYPOPHYSIS pars tuberalis
•very VASCULAR region = VEINS
•CORDS of EPITHELIAL CELLS
•small FOLLICLES lined with ACTH, FSH and LH cells
NEUROHYPOPHYSIS
extension of the nervous system
NEUROHYPOPHYSIS
1.Non-myelinated axons
2.Neurosecretory products (oxytocin, ADH)
3.Fenestrated sinusoidal capillaries
4.Glial cells (Pituicytes)
Neurohypophysis hormones
NEUROHYPOPHYSIS pars nervosa
The axons are unique!
1.end in close proximity to capillaries
2. contain secretory vesicles in ALL parts of the neuron
Herring Bodies
10-30nm Herring Bodies
Dilations of the axonal endings containing neurosecretory granules
ADH & Oxytocin
PITUICYTE
• glial cell
• branching cytoplasm
• support function
THYROID GLAND:
hormones
THYROID FOLLICLE
cyst-like 0.2-1mm
lined with cuboidal epithelium = Follicular Cells
filled with colloid = Thyroglobulin (glycoprotein)
Extracellular storage
EM: thyroid
Parafollicular cells (C cells)
PARATHYROID GLAND
parathyroid gland is essential for life needs ot be conserved in thyroid cells
parathyroid gland is essential for life needs ot be conserved in thyroid cells
PTH Functions
Parathyroid Gland Histology
ADRENAL GLAND
ADRENAL GLAND (CORTEX)
zona glomerulosa
zona fasciculata
zona reticularis
ADRENAL GLAND (MEDULLA)
Chromaffin cells (modified neurons)
sinusoidal capillaries
connective tissue
Presynaptic sympathetic nerve fibres (axons)
ganglion cells (modulate secretion)
Chromaffin cells (modified neurons)
sinusoidal capillaries
connective tissue
Presynaptic sympathetic nerve fibres (axons)
ganglion cells (modulate secretion)
CHROMAFFIN CELLS
MEDULLA = sympathetic ganglion