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29 Cards in this Set

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Blood Plasma
-55% of blood
-92% water
-7% are plasma proteins that are created by liver
Albumin - maintain blood osmotic pressure
Globulins - antibodies
fibronegin - clotthing
-1% other
What are the formed elements of blood?
Erythrocytes (RBC) - 99%
Leukocytes
Thrombocytes
Hematocrit
% of blood occupied by erythrocytes
Female - 38-46%
Male - 40 -50%
Anemia and Polycythemia
Not enough RBCs or not enough hemoglobin
too many RBC (over 65%), dehydraiton, tissue hypoxia, blood doping
Erythrocytes
7.8 um
Prortyhroblasts give rise to immature reticulocytes 
Once in circulated become erythrocytes 
-Biconcave disk -, flexible, no cell division or mitochondria 
-120 days
7.8 um
Prortyhroblasts give rise to immature reticulocytes
Once in circulated become erythrocytes
-Biconcave disk -, flexible, no cell division or mitochondria
-120 days
Sickle Cell
Point mutation where glutamic acid is replaced by Valine
Leads to deformed shape, decreasing capacity for O2
Leukocytes
WBC and are nucleated
Contain MHC
Granular (specific granules) - eosionphils, basophils and neutrophils NO BIG IE
Agranular Leukocyte - lymphocytes, and monocytes - not specific granules
Rolling-Adhesion and migration
Chemotaxis (kinins) attracts WBC to disease or injury 
1) WBC roll along endothelium and selections (on endothelial cells) help WBC stick  
2) Integrins found on neutrophil wall assist movement through wall
Chemotaxis (kinins) attracts WBC to disease or injury
1) WBC roll along endothelium and selections (on endothelial cells) help WBC stick
2) Integrins found on neutrophil wall assist movement through wall
Neutrophil
Neutrophil
Granulocyte
10-12 um
2-5 lobes
- bacteria
-have lysozymes (release hypchlorous acid)
-young cells are called band cells - indicates not yet developed
-60-70% of leukocytes
-3-5 say life span
-Have fc receptors, compliment and TL receptors
Granulocyte 10-12um
2-4% leukocytes
Nucleus Bilobed
-Fight Parasites
-Contain MBP (major basic protein), ECP, EPO, EDN
Granulocytes
less than 1%
8-10um
-inflammatory and allergy
Bilobed nuclei - large dark purple
-Specific azurophilic granules
Hepair - anticoagulant
Histamine - vasoactive - vasodilation
LK - constriction of smooth muscle
-high sulfate give rise to granules
Angranylocyte 6-30 um
-Dark oval, nucleus occupies most of cytoplasm
20-25% of leukocytes
T-cells
-cell mediated amenity - attack viruses and fungi
B cells
-turn in plasma - produce antibodies
NK cells
Agranulocyte
3-8%
16-20um
Nucleus is indented
-Contain azurophilic granules (not specific) - like baso
-leave capillaries and enter tissue
Phagocytose bateria and other cells (viral)
Stimulated by thrombopoetin.
2-4um
5-9 days
Have alpha and dense granules
Alpha:
clotthing factors
Dense:
ADP, ATP, Ca2+ = produce thromboxane
Hemostatis- blood clotting
CLotthing cascade
Prothrombinase is formed from either intrinisc or extrinsic - final common pathway produces fibrinogen
During clot, fibrin threads cause clot retration from factor 8 released by platlets
Hematopoiesis phase
Yolk phase - 3rd week of gestation
Hepatic - major blood forming 2nd trimester
Bone Marrow phase - begin during second 
After birth, takes palce only in bone marrow
Yolk phase - 3rd week of gestation
Hepatic - major blood forming 2nd trimester
Bone Marrow phase - begin during second
After birth, takes palce only in bone marrow
Myeloid lineage
Common myeloid progenitor cells (CMP)
RBS
Platelets 
Granulocytes (N, B, E) 
And Neutrophils
Common myeloid progenitor cells (CMP)
RBS
Platelets
Granulocytes (N, B, E)
And Neutrophils
Lymphoid Lineage
Common lympoid progenitor cells (CLP_ 
Give rise to Lymphocytes (b and t cells)
Common lympoid progenitor cells (CLP_
Give rise to Lymphocytes (b and t cells)
Stem Cell Niche
Found in epiphyseal areas (spongy or cancellous bone) 
Niche contains Stroma, maintains self-renewal and inhibition of differentiation. Cytokines - signals 
HSC migrate to vascular niche in center of bone and establish hematopoeisis.
Found in epiphyseal areas (spongy or cancellous bone)
Niche contains Stroma, maintains self-renewal and inhibition of differentiation. Cytokines - signals
HSC migrate to vascular niche in center of bone and establish hematopoeisis.
Red Marrow and Yellow Marrow
Red marrow is site of active hematopoesis and yellow marrow is fat capillaries, reticular cells.
EPO (erythropoetin)
Produced by kidneys and increases erythrocyte precursors.
Produced by kidneys and increases erythrocyte precursors.
TPO ) thrombopoetin
Hormone from liver, stimulates thrombocyte formation
Hormone from liver, stimulates thrombocyte formation
Cytokines and colony stimulating factor (CSF)
Produced by stem cell niche stroma to induce differentiation
Produced by stem cell niche stroma to induce differentiation
Erythropoeiesis
Stimulated by HYPOXIA
EPO produced by kidney
Proerythroblast (no heme) turns to erythroblast (some heme) turns into reticulocyte (more heme, nucleus ejected) ---> erthrocytes 
-recycled by liver or spleen (split to iron Fe3+)
Stimulated by HYPOXIA
EPO produced by kidney
Proerythroblast (no heme) turns to erythroblast (some heme) turns into reticulocyte (more heme, nucleus ejected) ---> erthrocytes
-recycled by liver or spleen (split to iron Fe3+)
Fate of Heme
Iron Fe3+
-transported to blood and attach to transferrin protein, stored in liver
Biliveredin (green)
-converted to bilirubin and secreted by liver into bile
Granulocytopoeisis
1) Takes 11 days, controlled by cytokines
Myleoblasts precurosor --> myelocyte - specific granules develop
Monocytopoesis
Starts with monoblasts and ends with monocytes
When in tissue, is called macrophages.
Starts with monoblasts and ends with monocytes
When in tissue, is called macrophages.
Thrombopoesis
TPO induced from liver
Starts with megaryoblasts then to megakaryocytic (40-100um) in bone marrow. Platelets pinch off from.
TPO induced from liver
Starts with megaryoblasts then to megakaryocytic (40-100um) in bone marrow. Platelets pinch off from.