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168 Cards in this Set

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what do cells produce during aerobic metabolism
water and carbon dioxide
what do skeletal muscle cells produce when forced to metabolize anaerobically
lactic acid
what does lactic acid do to the buffering and excretion mechanisms
overwhelmes it= muscle cramps, rapid breathing and vomiting
what are the four things a cell must be able to do
1. form complex substances using simple substances
2. some degree of self-regulation involving temp. & pH
3. capable of movement as a whole(external) and within itself(internal).
4. the ability to reproduce itself.
what r the 2 types of equilibrium
static and dynamic
when does static equilibrium occur
when things are at a standstill
when does dynamic equilibrium occur
when 2 opposing reactions occur at the same rate
what do systems that lack equilibrium undergo
diffusion
the krebs cycle is also called what other 2 things
citric acid cycle or tricarboxylic acid cycle
where does the krebs cycle occur
in the mitochondira
what is the first product generated in the krebs cycle
citric acid
what provides energy to the cell for the krebs cycle
phosphate compuonds produced from acetyl units
describe what hapens in the krebs cycle
acetate molecules are oxidized to form 2 CO2 and 8 atoms of H. CO2 is removed from cell by the blood, and H is used for oxidative phosphorylation. the reaction is exothermic and produces 1 ATP during each cycle.
which of the 3 stages is the krebs cycle in the carbohydrate catabolism process
the second
where are blood cells primarily generated
bone marrow of sternum, illiac crest and femurs
what r the 3 types of blood cells
red, white, and platelets
when are the 3 type of blood cells differentiates
not until they enter the bloodstream
what is blood made up of
55% plasma and 45% hematocrit
what is plasma made up of
primarily water but also 7% proteins and 1.5% other substances
what proteins are found in plasma
albumin, globulin, fibrinogen
what is hematocrit made up of
mostly red blood cells but also white blood cells and platelets
what are tissues
a group of cells with a similar prupose that clusters together
other then the skin what other parts of the body is epithelial tissue found
lining the GI tract, urinary system, and blood vessels
what are the types of epithelial cells
squamous, columner and ciliated
what type of epithelial tissue lines the esophagus and transports mucus up out of the body
ciliated
what type of tissue makes up bones, cartilage, reticular fibers, collagenous fibers, and fatty tissue
connective tissue
connective tissues gives an organsim
shape
what are the connective tissues that protect the underlying soft organs like the heart, lungs, spinal cord, and brain
the chest cavity, backbone, and the cranium
connective tissue tends to be very strong while mantaining a degree of
elasticity
what are the 4 types of muscle tissue
smooth, cardiac, voluntary and involuntary
is smooth muscle voluntary or involuntary
involuntary
where is smooth mucle found
in the digestive tract moving food, and in blood vessels moving blood
where is voluntary muscle found
attached to bones where it can control fine and gross motor skills
what is the most complex tissue in the body and is resistant to new growth
nerve tissue
what is nerve tissue responsible for
regulating the internal workings of the body through the endocrine system. such as maintaining body temp. and directing blood flow.
what r the 4 types of nerve tissue
peripheral, central, sensory, motor
what is the cardiorespiratory system responsible for
removing unessential substances from the cells
what does the cardiorespiratory system consist of
heart, blood vessels, lungs, and airways
what is the process of the cardiorespiratory system
air enters throught the nose and mouth, travels down the trachea into the right and left bronchus. the bronchus become numerous bronchi each of which terminates in a bronchiole. the bronchioles become aveoli.
the heart is divided into 4 chambers called
right and left atria, and right and left ventricle
what is the process of the circulatory system
right atrium receives blood from the venous system then lets blood fall down into the right ventricle. blood goes to the lungs . then blood comes back frm the lungs into the left atrium, it falls into the left ventricle and is pumped out.
what r the 3 layers of the heart
epicardium, myocardium, endocardium
what is heart rate determined by
physical activity, body temp., and concentration of ions
what is hypertension
elevated arterial pressure
what is arteriosclerosis
decreased elasticity of the arterial walls followed by narrowing of the lumen
what does the hormone aldosterone do to blood pressure
promote retention of water in the kidneys and increase blood volume= increasing blood pressure
tachycardia
abnormally fast heartbeat
bradycardia
abnormally slow heartbeat
fibrillation
rapid heart beats
what does the respiratory system include
the nose, nasal cavity, sinuses, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs
what is the process of the respiratory system
air goes throught the nose, thorugh the nasal cavity where it is warmed, throught the pharynx which is a duct for air and food, then the larynx which holds vocal cords. the traches divides into right and left bronchi on the wy into the bronchial tree and the lungs
how many lobes does the right and left lung have
right=3
left=2
where does gas exchange occur between the air and blood
in the aveoli
what is breathing controlled by
the medulla oblongata and the pons
what is inspiration controlled by
changes in the thoracic cavity
what is the process of breathing
air fills the lungs because of atmospheric pressure pushing air in. Expansion of the lungs is aided by surface tension, which holds pleural membranes together. In addition the diaphragm which is stimulated by the phrenic nerve acts as a suction pump to encourage inspiration expiration comes from the recoil of tissues and the surface tension of the aveoli.
where does aerobic respiration occur
in the mitochondria of the cell
where does anaerobic respiration occur
in the cytoplasm of a cell
which produces less ATP anaerobic or aerobic respiration
anaerobic respiration
anoxia
absence of oxygen in tissues
atelectasis
collapse of a lung
dyspnea
difficulty in the breathing cycle
hypercapnia
excessive carbon dioxide in the blood
what is the central nervous system made up of
the brain and the spinal cord
what does the peripheral nervous system consist of
cranial and spinal nerves that innervate organs, muscles and sensory systems
what deos the brain control
thought, reasoning, memory, sight, and judgment
what are the 4 lobes of the brain
frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital
what are neural tracts
in the spinal cord, conduct info to and from the brain
what in the peripheral nervous system connects the brain the the head, neck and trunk
the cranial nerves
what do peripheral nerves allow
control of muscle groups in the upper and lower extremities and sensory stimulation
what does the peripheral nerves branch off from and where do they branch off too
branch off the spinal cord going toward organs, and muscles
what does the autonomic nervous system do
controls reflexive functions of the brain. including fight or flight response and maintaining homeostasis
what does the autonomic nervous system use neurotransmitters to accomplish
help conduct nerve signals and turn on/off various cell groups.
what is the functional unit of the nervous system
neurons
what is nervous tissue composed of
neurons
what is a neuron composed of
a cell body and organelles usually found in cells
what is the function of a dendrite
provide receptive info to the neuron and a single axon carries the info away
what is the function of a single axon
to carry info away from the neuron
synapse
junction between 2 neurons
what are afferent nerves
cary impulses from one part of the body to the spinal cord and brain
what does the function of afferent nerves allow the body to do
respond to external stimuli; touch, sight and sound
what are afferent nerves also known as
sensory nerves
what do efferent nerves do
carry impulses from the central nervous system to the internal organs or the periphery of the body
what does the function of efferent nerves allow the body to do
direct movement of the whole body or parts of the body
what are efferent nerves also called
motor nerves
what is the spinal cords role in the central nervous system
transports sensory info from the peripheral nervous system to the brain. and transports motor info from the brain to the skeletal muscles, smooth muscles, cardiac muscles and glands.
what is the brains role in the central nervous system
receives the sensory and motor input from the spinal cord and its own nerves. it processes the sensory input and coordinates the appropriate motor output.
what r the brain and spinal cord made up of
gray and white matter
what does gray matter consist of
masses of cell bodies and dendrites covered with synapses
what does white matter consist of
bundles of axons coated with myelin
is the white matter external to the gray matter in the brain or spinal cord
spinal cord.
the autonomic division of the peripheral nervous system is divided into what 2 groups
sympathetic and parasympathetic
what is the function of the sympathetic system of the autonomic division of the peripheral nervous system
fight or flight response
where does the sympathetic system originate
thoracic and lumbar region of the spinal cords
when the fight or flight response is activated by the sympatheic system what happens to the body
reduce digestive secretions, increase heart rate, and contract blood vessels
what does the peripheral nervous system include
all of the nerves in the body except of the brain and spinal cord
what 2 divisions is the peripheral nervous system broken into
somatic and autonomic divisions
the PNS connects the what to the rest of the body
CNS
what does the somatic division of the peripheral nervous system do
transmits nerve impulses to and from the skeletal muscles
where does the sympatheic nervous system originate
brain stem and lower spinal cord
autonomic division of the peripheral nervous sytem is divided into what 2 systems
sympathetic and parasympathetic
when is the parasympathetic nervous system active
under normal circumstances
when is the sympathetic nervous system active
in crisis
how does the parasympatheic nervous system counteract the sympathetic
slowing the heart rate, constricting the pupils, dilating the blood vessels, and stimulating digestive secretions
the neuroendocrine system is ruled by
the thalamus and hypothalamus
the sensory pathways from receptors like the eyes, ears, and skin all pass through the
thalamus
the thalamus consists of
cluster of neurons, which consist of tightly packed nuclei.
what acts upon the pituitary gland to regulate blood vessels and glands
the hypothalamus
what does the hypothalamus influence
emotions, sexual behavior, appetite and sleep cycles
the hypothalamus receives sensory info from
taste and smell receptors
the pituitar gland regulates
all other glands in the body
the posterior pituitary is responsible for maintaining
fluid levels in the body through antidiuretic hormones, and stimulates contractions during birth
the anterior pituitary gland regulates
the secretion of hromones by other organs. such as cortisone secreted by the kidneys. growth hormone. also secreted a hormone that stimulates the thyroid and regulates metabolism. controls the reproductive functins and milk production
what is the process of digestion
teeth grind, saliva digests using enzymes, the pharynx and esophagus allow passages for food into the stomach, the stomach uses gastric juices and absorbes a small amount of food, food goes to small intestines. pacreas and liver secrete enzymes and bile into SI to aid in absorption. then substrates are passed to large intestines where absorption of water and electrolytes occurs.
what are the 3 parts of the small intestines
duodenum, jejunum and ileum
what is peristalsis
wave like motion that propel food downward throught the digestive system
what is the alimentary canal
the path food travels from the mouth to the anus
feces are composed mostly of
water and substrates
colelithiasis
stones in the gallbladder
diverticulitis
inflammation of the small pouches in the colon
hepatitis
inflammation of the liver
somatitis
inflammation of the mouth
dyspepsia
indigestion
enteritis
inflammation of the intestines
what is the tube called that sperm travels through
vas deferens
what activates sperm cells
semen
what is semen composed of
sperm cells and secretions of the prostate and bulbourethral glands
what does testosterone do
encourages the growth of male sex hormones and development of male secondary sex characteristics
what r the rimary femal e sex hormones
estrogen and progesterone
what is estrogen responsible for
female sexual characteristics
what is progesterone responsible for
changes in the uterus
the product of fertilization is
a zygote with 46 chromosomes
menepause is related to
low levels of estrogen and changes in the female reproductive organs
amenorrhea
absence of menstrual flow
gestation
40 weeks of pregnancy
orchitis
inflammation of the testis
the urinary system consists of
kidnelys, ureters, bladder, and urethra
what is the function of the kidneys
to remove metabolic wastes from the blood and secrete them. also help regulate blood pressure, blood pH, and red blood cell production
the basic functional unit of a kidney is
the nephron
the nephron consists of
renal corpuscle and the renal tubule
the kidneys are involved in
filtration, re-absorption and secretion
glomerular filtration is regulated by
osmotic pressure
enuresis
uncontrolled urination
diuretic
a substance that encourages urination
pyuria
pus in the urine
ureteritis
inflammation of the ureter
what is the basis of the integumentary system
skin
what is the function of the skin
protects thwe inner parts of the body and provides shape. helps body maintain temp, contain fluids and sheild from infection
what are the 3 layers of skin
epidermis, dermis and subcutaneous tissue
other then the skin the components of the integumentary system are
hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands.
what is the function of hair in the integumentary system
maintain body temp and fliter out harmful particles
what does the ear do and what is the process
external ear collects sound and passes it to the tympanic mambrane. the middle ear increases the force of the sound waves usinf malleus, stapes, and incus. auditory tubes connect the middle ear to the throat and help maintain proper pressure. to the inner ear
what does the inner ear consist of
a complex system of tubes and chambers-occeous, membranuos labyrinths and also cochlea.
auditory impulses are interpreted in the
temporal lobes
what r the 3 layers of the wall of the eye
sclera, choroid, retina
what does the sclera do
protect
what is found at the anterior part of the sclera and what is its function
the cornea, refracts light entering the eye
what does the choroid (middle layer of wall)
helps keep the inside of the eye dark
what does the retrina contain
the receptor cells
what are the visual receptors on the retina
rods and cones
what r rods responsible for
colorless vision in dim light
what r cones responsible for
color vision
otitis media
inflammation of the middle ear
diplopia
double vision
tinnitus
ringing in the ears
who dod the study of genetics begin with
gregor medel a monk given a task to study traits among garden peas
what did medel's research uncover
characteristics of an individual are controlled by genes, and genes occur in pairs
when was mendels research recognized
1900's