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195 Cards in this Set

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The skeletal system consists of (4 things)
bones, joints, cartilage and ligaments
the word skeleton means
dried-up body
a common bone disorder, especially in older women is called
osteoporosis
name 4 functions of the skeleton
supports the body weight
protects the soft body organs
enables the body to move
stores minerals - important - calcium and phosphoral
producted blood cells
name the 4 classifications of bones
long bones, short bones, flat bones, irreglar bones
bone is also called
osseous tissue
bone cells are called
osteocytes
what secretes an intercellular matrix containing calium, other minerals and protein fibers
osteocytes
Name the two types of bones
compact and spongy
dense, hard bone tissue found primarily in the shaft of long bones and the outer surface of other bones is called
compact bone
spongy bone is also called
cancellous bone
what type of bone is located primarily at the ends of long bones and in the center of other bones
cancellous (spongy) bone
the microscopic unit of compact bone is
the osteon or haversian system
osteoclastic activity is responsible for
longitudinal bone growth
describe the haversian system
it consists of mature osteocytes arranged in a concentric circles around large blood vessels
In infancy, the medullary cavity is filled with red bone marrow, in adulthood it's filled with
yellow bone marrow
yellow bone marrow is a storage site for
fat
the connective tissue that lines the medullary cavity is called
endosteum
a tough fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers the outside of the diaphysis is called
the periosteum
articular cartilage Is/Is Not anchored firmly to the outside of the bone on all surfaces
is not -
what is the function of periosteum
protects the bone, serves as a point of attachment for muscle, and contains the blood vessels that nourishes the underlying bone
where is the articular cartilage found
on the outer surface of the epiphysis
what is the purpose of the articular cartilage
it decreases friction within a joint.
another name for a joint is
articulation
the formation of bone is called
ossification
ossification begins when ________ or bone forming cells migrate to the region of the flat bones (in an infant)
osteoblasts
what do osteoblasts secrete
calcium and other minerals
ossification of long bones occurs when
bone tissue replaces cartilage
osteoblasts invade cartilage and replace cartilage with bone until
all but the articular cartilage ad the epiphyseal disc have been replaced by bone
what two pieces of cartilage remain unossified
bridge of the nose and parts of the ribs
maturation is characterized by two types of bone growth, name them
(1) bones grow longitudinally and - for height and (2) grow thicker and become wider - to support weight
where does longitudinal bone growth occur
at the epiphyseal disc also called the growth plate
when cartilage no longer continues to grow in the epiphyseal disc, what happens
the bone stops growing in length
longitudinal bone growth ceases when
the epiphyseal disc becomes ossified and fused
what two hormones affect the epiphyseal disc
sex hormones and growth hormones
what hormone causes the epiphyseal disc to fuse
sex hormones estrogen and testosterone
girls are shorter because
the epiphyseal disc is more sensitive to estrogen
hypersecretion of growth hormone causes
giantism
hyposecretion of growth hormone causes
dwarfism
what happens if the epiphyseal disc is injured
longitudinal bone growth is impaired in the injured bone
bone remodeling is accomplished by
osteoblasts
bone-FORMING cells are
osteoblasts
bone-destroying cells are
osteoclasts (C4 explosive)
where are osteoblasts located
on the undersurface of the periosteum
where is bone deposited by osteoblasts
on the external bone surface
where is bone broken down by osteoclasts
on the inner bone surfact surrounding the medullary cavity
bone resorption is when
osteoclasts breakdown bone matrix
the breakdown of the bone matrix is called
bone resorption
besides widening bone, bone resorption also
moves calcium from the bone to the blood
what hormone plays a role in bone resorption
the parathyroid hormone
what are bone surface markings
ridges, projections, depressions and grooves
what is the purpose of bone markings
the markings that stick out serve as points of attachment for muscles, tendons and ligaments
what purpose do the grooves and depressions play
they form the routes traveled by blood vessels and nerves
what purpose do the projections and depressions play
they also help form the joints
what type of fracture is a broken bone that also pierces the skin
a compound fracture
an incomplete break, usually occurs in children is called
a greenstick fracture
a fracture which extends in a spiral direction along the diaphysis is called
a spiral fracture - caused by a twisting force
when there are more than two bone fragments, the fracture is called
a comminuted fracture
when two parts of a broken bone have been jammed into each other is called
an impacted fracture, which is a type of comminuted fracture.
bones are composed of two types of osseous tissue
compact (dense) bone
spongy (cancellous) bone
What is the head of a bone
an enlarged and rounded end of a boe
what is an epicondyle
an enlargement near or above a condyle
a large rounded know that usually articulates with another bone is called
a condyle
a facet of a bone is
a small, flattened surface
what is a process of a bone
a prominent project on a bone
what is a trochanter (bone)
a large tubercle (tuberosity) found only on the femur
what is a depression or grove on a bone called
a fossa
a tunnel or tubelike passwageway on a bone is called
meatus
a sinus is
a cavity or hollow space
the skeleton is divided into
the axial skeleton and the appendicular skeleton
what bones makes up the axial skeleton
the bones of the skull, hyoid bone, bones of the middle ear, vertebral column and bony thorax
what bones make up the appendicular skeleton
the appendicular skeleton include the bones of the hip and shoulder girles
how many bones are in the skeleton
206
how many bones are in the axial skeleton
80
how many bones are in the appendicular skeleton
126
the skull is formed by what two groups of bones
the cranium and the facial bones
the cranium is composed of how many bones
8
name the eight bones of the skull/cranium
frontal, parietal(2), temporal(2), occipital, sphenoid, ethmoid
name the four bone markings located on the temporal bone
the styloid process, the external auditory meatus, the zygomatic process and mastoid process
where are the zygomatic and mastoid processes located
on the temporal bone, the zygomatic process is in front of the external auditory meatus, the mastoid process behing
where is the point of attachment for some of the muscles of the neck
the mastoid process
where is the point of attachment for several muscles associated with the tongue and larynx
the styloid process
the opening for the ear is called
the external auditory meatus
the bone that forms the bridge of the nose is
the nasal bone
the thin bone in the nose that separates the nostrils is called
the vomer
the mandible is located where on the skull
it forms the chin and the lower jaw
the bone that holds the upper teeth is called
the maxilla
the bone on the inner-interior surface of the orbit of the eye is called
the lacrimal bone
the point of attachment of the mandible to the temporal bone is called
the temporomandibular joint
the suture that runs across the top of the skull is called the
coronal suture
the suture that runs above the temporal bone is called
the squamous suture
the suture that runs above the occipital bone
is the lambdoidal suture
the bone in the cranium that is butterfly shaped and forms part of the floor and sides of the cranium is called
the sphenoid bone
the seat of the pituitary gland is located where
in the sphenoid bone in a depression called the sella turcica
the ethmoid bone is located where
it is the deepest bone that is located between the eye orbits and helps form the bony structure of the nasal cavity
a projection that forms a point of attachment for the meninges is located where
on the ethmoid bone
the membranes that surround the brine and contain cerebrospinal fluid are called
meninges
a sharp blow to the ethmoid bone can result
in death by causing severe brain injury and death
the face has how many bones
14
name the two single bones of the face (all others are paired)
the mandible and the vomer
the lower jaw bone that carries the lower teeth is called
the mandible
the only freely movable joint in the skull is the
mandible
the mandible articulates with the temporal bones where
at the temporomandibular joint
what is tooth grinding called
bruxism
two ___________ bones fuse to form the upper jaw
maxilla
an extension of the maxilla, the ___________ _________, forms the anterior portion of the har palate
palatine process
two palatine bones form the posterior part of the hard palat and the floor of the __________ _________
nasal cavity
failure of the palatine and/or maxillary bones to fuse causes a
cleft palate
cheekbones and part of the orbits of the eyes
zygomatic bones
what is a sinus
the sinuses are air filled cavities located in several of the bones of the skull
what important functions do the sinuses perform
they lessen the weight of the skull and increase the sound of the voice
the four sinuses are called
the paranals sinuses
name the four sinuses
frontal sinus, ethmoidal sinuses, sphenoidal, and maxillary
a sinus infection is called
simusitis
a unique kind of joint in the adult skull is called
a suture
the major suture are
coronal suture, the lambdoidal suture and the squamosal suture
name the two major differences between the infant skull and the adult skull
infant skulls have fontanels and unfused sutures.
soft spots in a baby's skull that are a fibrous membrane are called
fontanels
the word fontanel means
"little fountain"
by what age are the fontanels converted to bone
by age 2
what is the prime reason for fontanels
fontanels allow the skull to be compressed during birth and allow continued growth of the brain and skull after birth and throughout infancy
when the sutures of the infant skull fuse too early, preventing growth of the brain, this condition is called
microcephalia
microcephalia is characterized by
a small skull and impaired intellectual fuctioning
if excessive fluid accumulates within the brain of an infant, the bones are forced agart and the skull enlarges - this is called
hydrocephalus
a sunken fontanel can indicate
dehydration
what is the hyoid bone
it is a U-shaped bone located in the upper neck
what does the hyoid bone do
it anchors the tongue and is associated with swallowing
how many bones are in the middle ear
3
the three small bones of the middle ear are called
ossicles
another name for the vertebral column is
backbone
the backbone, vertebral column, extends from
the skull to the pelvis
how many bones are in the vertebral column
26
what four major functions does the vertebral column perform
it forms a supporting structure for the head and thorax, an attachment for the pelvic girdle, it encases and protect the spinal cord and provides flexibility for the body
how many cervical vertebrae are there
7 c1-c7
cervical vertebrae are located where
in the neck region
the large bump on the cervical vertebra is located where and called what
C7, vertebra prominens
how many thoracic vertebrae are there
12 - T1 to T12
the thoracic vertebrae are located where
in the chest region
how many lumbar vertebrae are there
5 L1 to L5
where are the lumbar vertebrae located
in the lower back
what level of the lumbar vertebrae are you at when you place your hands on your hips
L4
how many sacral vertebrae are there
5
the five sacral vertebrae fuse into one
sacrum
the __________ forms the posterior wall of the pelvis
sacrum
the tailbone is called the
coccyx - it resembles the beak of a cuckoo bird
Name two special vertibrae
atlas (C1) and axis (C2)
the first cervical vertibrae is called the
atlas (C1)
what vertibrae has no body, but does have depressions and form the seat of the occipital bone
the atlas
the second cervial vertibrae is called the
axis (C2)
the name of the projection located on the axis is
the dens - named after a toothlike odontoid process
what allows the atlast to pivot or swivel
the axis
this allows your head to rotate from side to side "no"
axis
the "spin bone"
the axis
in children the fusion between the __________ and the axis is incomplete
dens
the cartilaginous disc that pads the vertebrae is called
an intervertebral disc
the purpose of the intervertebral disc is
the support the weight of the vertebra sitting on top of it
processes provide a site of attachment for
ligaments, tendons and muscles
what is the vertebral foramen
it is the opening in the vertebrae for the spinal cord
when the lamina fails to fuse during fetal development, this develops
spinal bifida
compression of the spinal cord causes what
paralysis and loss of bladder and bowel control
what surgical procedure may be performed to access the intevertebral disc
a laminectomy
when a surgeon whats to remove a damaaaged or slipped disc, he performs a
laminectomy
when view from the side, the spinal cord has four normal curvatures, name them
the cervical, thoracic, lumbar and sacral curves
what spinal curvatures bend toward the front of the body
the cervial and the lumbar
what spinal curvature bend away from the front of the body
the thoracic ad sacral curvatures
what curvatures (curves) center the head over the body, providing balance to walk in an upright position
the thoracic and sacral curvatures
how is the curvature of the fetal spine different
it is a single c-shaped curvature that bends away from the front of the body (curled-up position)
when does the cervical curvature develop
it develops about 3 to 4 months after birth
when does the lumbar curvature develop
it develops at about 1 year of age, when children begin walking
an abnormal lateral curvature is called
scoliosos and usually involves the thoracic vertebrae
an exaggerated thoracic curvature is called
kyphosis
swayback is also called
lordosis
an exaggerated lumbar curvature is called
lordosis
describe the thoracic cage
it is a bony, cone-shaped cage that surrounds and protects the lungs, heart, large blood vesels and some abdominal organs - liver and spleen
what plays a crucial role in breathing and supporting the bones of the shoulder
the thoracic cage
the thoracic cage is composed of
the sternum, ribs and thoracic vertebrae
another name for the sternum is
breastbone
a dagger shaped bone located along the midline of the anterior chest is called
the sternum
what are the three parts of the sternum
the manubrium(top), body and xiphoid proces
the tipe of the sternum is called the
xiphoid process
the xiphoid process serves as a landmark for
CPR
the suprasternal notch is located where
it is the superior line of the anubrium
the suprasternal notch is also called the
jugular notch
the jugular notch is
a depression on the upper part of the manubrium between the two clavicles
how many pairs of ribs are there
12
how many pairs of ribs attach directly to the sternum
7
how do the ribs attach to the sternum
by costal cartilage
ribs that attach to the sternum via costal cartilage are called
true ribs
five pairs of ribs attach indirectly to the sternum or do not attach at all and are called
false ribs
the bottom two pairs of fals ribs which lack sternal attachment are called
floating ribs
the heart is located between the
2nd and 6th ribs
Contractions of these muscles helps move the thoracic cage during breathing
intercostal muscles
what is the costal angle
they are the edges of the cartilage that form an angle as they converge near the xiphoid process
the costal margin should be less than ________ degrees
90
during pregnancy the angle of the _______________ __________ increases
costal angle