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35 Cards in this Set

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Does the horse or ruminant have the cuneiform process? How is the cuneiform cartilage different from the dog?
The horse and dog are the only species with a cuneiform process, the ruminant does not. This cuneiform process is fused to the epiglottic cartilage, not the arytenoid cartilage like in the dog.
Is the epiglottis hyaline or elastic? What about the thyroid/cricoid cartilages?
Epiglottis is elastic
The others are hyaline cartilage.
Do the equine corniculate cartilages curve cranially or caudally?
Caudally, as in the dog.
Is the body of the thyroid cartilage larger in the ox or horse? What is the clinical signifigance?
Larger in the ox. Signifigant because the caudal notch can be used as a surgical approach to the larynx in the horse.
What is the condition that involves the muscle extending from the median crest of the equine cricoid cartilage? What is that muscle?
Laryngeal hemiplegia
cricoarytenoideus dorsalis m.
What is 3 in this ox larynx?
Corniculate processes of the arytenoid cartilage
Name these
this one has mucosa on it
In small animals, we called 5 the laryngeal ventricle. What should we be prepared to call it in the horse?
Lateral laryngeal ventricle
Do ruminants have lateral laryngeal ventricles?
No
Do ruminants have vestibular folds?
No
What makes up the vocal fold in the ox?
Covers the vocal ligament and underlying part of thyroarytenoideus m.
What makes up the aryepiglottic fold in the ox?
From lateral border of epiglottic cartilage to corniculate process of arytenoid
What is the entrance to the larynx called in the horse?
Aditus laryngis
What are the three areas of the laryngeal cavity of the horse?
Vestibule, glottic cleft, infraglottic cavity
What is the action of sternothyroideus m?
Pulls larynx caudally
What is the action of the hyoepiglotticus?
Pulls the epiglottis toward the basihyoid bone.
Where does cricothyroideus m. course between in the horse? What is its action?
Arises from the lateral surface and caudal edge of the cricoid cartilage
Inserts on the caudal border and adjacent part of the lateral surface of the thyroid lamina
Narrows glottic cleft; tenses vocal folds
Where does the arytenoideus transversus m. course between in large animals? What is its action?
Courses transversely across the dorsal surface of the larynx and attaches to the muscular processes of the arytenoid cartilages
Narrows glottic cleft by drawing the arytenoid cartilages together (adduction
Where does the cricoarytenoideus dorsalis m. course between in large animals? What is its action? What innervates it?
Arises from the lamina and median ridge of the cricoid cartilage
Inserts on the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage
Enlarges the glottic cleft by rotating the arytenoid cartilage so that the vocal process moves laterally (abduction)

Innervated by the recurrent laryngeal n.
Where does the cricoarytenoideus lateralis m. course between in large animals? What is its action?
Arises from the rostral border of the cricoid arch
Inserts on the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage
Narrows the glottic cleft by rotating the arytenoid cartilage medially (adduction)
What three muscles in the equine close the glottis?
Ventricularis, vocalis (thyroarytenoideus m.) and cricoarytenoideus lateralis muscles pull the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage ventrally. Arytenoideus transversus muscle draws the arytenoid cartilages together
What muscle in the equine opens the glottis?
Cricoarytenoideus dorsalis muscle pulls the muscular process dorsocaudally, rotating the arytenoid so that the vocal process and fold are pulled laterally
If you saw this when intubating, what would you think?
Dorsal displacement of the soft palate in the horse
If you saw this when intubating, what would you think?
Epiglottic entrapment in the horse
If you saw this when intubating a horse, what would you think?
You'd think - awesome - this is the normal position of epiglottis during breathing.
Where does the ventricularis m. in the horse course between? What are its actions?
Arises from the medial surface of the rostral part of the thyroid lamina and from a small part of the cricothyroid membrane
Inserts dorsally on the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage
Narrows the glottic cleft
Where does the vocalis m. course between? What is its action?
Arises from the body of the thyroid cartilage
Inserts on the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage
Narrows the glottic cleft
Where does thyroarytenoideus m. course between in the ruminant?
Not divided into vocalis and ventricularis mm. in the ruminant
Arises ventrally from the basal part of the lateral border of the epiglottis, the medial surface of the thyroid lamina and from the cricothyroid membrane
Inserts on the vocal and muscular processes of the arytenoid cartilage
What muscles do the recurrent laryngeal n. and cranial laryngeal n. innervate?
Recurrent laryngeal n.
Innervates all intrinsic laryngeal muscles except the cricothyroideus m.
Sensory to the mucous membrane of the caudal portion of the larynx

Cranial laryngeal n.
Innervates the cricothyroideus m.
Sensory to the mucous membrane of the cranial portion of the larynx
What feature of the large animal pharynx allows saliva to pass the larynx without swallowing?
Piriform recess
Follow the pathway of air from the nasal cavity through to the trachea in the large animal.
1 Nasal cavity
2 Oral cavity
3 Soft palate
4 Nasopharynx
5 Root of tongue
6 Larynx
7 Laryngopharynx
8 Caudal end of palatopharyngeal arch
9 Esophagus
10 Cricoid cartilage
11 Trachea
Name these numbered structures of the equine larynx.
1 Epiglottis
2 Laryngeal entrance
3 Pharyngeal recess
4 Auditory tube opening
What are one and two of this equine larynx? What would you see in roarings?
1 Arytenoid cartilage
2 Left and right vocal folds

In roarings you’ll see the arytenoid adducting, instead of normally abducted.
What is the difference between a horse and a ruminant hyopharyngeus m.?
The horse hyopharyngeus m. arises from the thyrohyoid bone and thyroid lamina.

The ruminant hyopharyngeus m. arises from the thyrohyoid, ceratohyoid, and stylohyoid bone.
Where does the hyoepiglotticus m. course from in the horse vs the ruminant?
It courses from the basihyoid bone in the horse and the ceratohyoid bone in the ruminant.