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29 Cards in this Set

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What is a glacier?

large. slow moving river of ice

Glacier ice is the largest reservoir of __________ on ___________

1. Fresh water


2. earth

Glaciers are formed from compacted layers of ________, that slowly deforms and flows in response to _____________

1. snow


2. gravity

The snow which forms temperate glaciers is subject to repeated freezing and thawing, which changes it into a form of granular snow called ________

neve

Under the pressure of the layers of ice and snow above it, granular ice fuses into denser ___________

firn

over a period of years, layers of firn undergo further compaction and become __________

glacial ice

The melting runoff, evaporation or sublimation of the ice, resulting in a thinning of the ice if it is not replenished by some other process is called

ablation

What is sublimation?

Transformation from solid to gaseous state

True or false: The lower layers of glacial ice flow and deform plastically under pressure, allowing the glacier as a whole to move slowly like a viscous fluid. (glacier movement due to plastic flow)

True

The uppermost levels of glacier that follows britlle behaviour and allows ice to form in crevasses is called the ___________

rigid zone

What is the zone of plastic flow?

Below brittle-plastic transition zone in which ice is able to flow or deform plastically

What type of glaciers form in mountainous regions and occur at all latitudes (but at much higher altitudes closer to the equator)?

Alpine Glaciers (mountain glaciers)

Lens shaped (thickest in middle) that flow out in all directions are called

Continental glaciers (ice sheets)



What is larger: valley glaciers or Continental glaciers ( ice sheets)

Continental Glaciers

What type of Glacier is found in Greenland and Antartica

Continental Glaciers

During the Pleistocene (1.8 Ma) , glaciers retreated (interglacial) because of __________ temperatures and advanced because of ____________ temperatures (glacial)



1. Mild


2. Cold

What is the name of the most recent interglacial that began about 10,000 years ago and is still going on?

Holocene Epoch

What is the name of the most recent North American glaciation where ice sheets extended to about 45 degrees north latitude?

Wisconsin glaciation

Interlayerd glacial deposits and soil layers are known as

Surficial deposits

Cold water marine microfossils are evidence from the Kansan glacial and the ___________ interglacial



Aftonian interglacial

Warm water marine microfossils are evidence from the Kansan glacial and the ____________ interglacial

Yarmouth

The Northern hemisphere glaciation was during the last ______________

ice age

The accumulation of 3 to 4 km thick _____________ caused a sea level _______________ of about 120 m

1. ice sheets


2. lowering



What places were covered by glaciers as a result of the sea level lowering? (2 answers)

Alps


Himalayas

Occurs when the ice and the load of rock fragments slide over the bedrock and function as sandpaper that smooths and polished the surface situated below ?




a)moraine


b) abrasion


c) striation


d) Drumlin


e) Erratic



Abrasion

Exceptionally large rocks carried long distances by glaciers.


a) moraine


b) abrasion


c) striation


d) Drumlin


e) Erratics

Erratics

A elongated whale-shaped hill formed by glacial action. Often found in drumlin fields. Blunter end faces into glacial movement.


a) moraine


b) abrasion


c) striation


d) Drumlin


e) Erratics

Drumlin

Scratches left behind as a result of glacier abrasion


a) moraine


b) abrasion


c) striation


d) Drumlin


e) Erratic

Striations

Linear mounds of till a ,non- sorted mixture of rock, gravel and boulders within a matrix of a fine powdery material. The till is deposited directly by the glacier as it erodes rocks that it passes over.




a) moraine


b) abrasion


c) striation


d) Drumlin


e) Erratic

Moraine