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36 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

Igneous rocks is formed by

cooling of magma or lava

Igneous rocks are classified by

texture and color

Intrusive or plutonic rocks cool...


extrusive or volcanic rocks cool....


What is meant by the term texture?

Crystal size

What are some types of textures?

Phaneritic, aphanitic, porphyritic, pegmatitic, and glassy

Phaneritic is intrusive or extrusive?


aphanitic is intrusive or extrusive?


Mafic Composition

Mg,Fe Dark color

Felsic Composition

Fe,Si light color

Intermediate comp

grey color

Factors that affect crystal size

#1 is rate of cooling

3 components of magma

silicate,gases, and crystals?????


Measure of resistance of magma flow

felsic magma is more vicious because...

it has more silica

How does temp and gas affect viscosity?

hotter magmas are less vicious.and more trapped gas = explosion

Why does magma rise?

Because its less dense than surrounding rocks.

What is a pluton?

Magma that solidifies within the crust

What is a dike?

A sheet that cuts vertically across geological layers

What is a sill?

A sheet that cuts horizontally across geological layers

Why are some volcanoes more dangerous than others?

The amount of silica and gas pressure within the volcano.

What is a shield volcano? (Hawaii)

eruptions are quiet, low viscosity of magma

What is a composite volcano? (adjacent to pacific ocean)

-Form at convergent plate boundaries

-intermediate felsic level

-erupt explosively

What is a cinder volcano?

Steep sided with crater on top

What are flood basalts?

They often cover large areas and are horizontal

What hazards are associated with volcanoes?

High silica cant escape, gases, and temp

What is weathering?

Physical breakdown and chemical alteration of earths material

mechanical weathering

is physically breaking rocks into smaller rocks

chemical weathering

chemical reactions change rocks (dissolve away)

Sedimentary rocks and what percent of earths surface?

products of weathering- 70%

Process to create a sedimentary rock


2. Erosion and transport

3. Deposit of sediments

4. Lithification

How do they transport?

Dissolve load and suspended load

How to identify a sedimentary rock

Grain size, sorting, and rounding

Breccia sedimentary rocks have

sharp grains

conglomerate sedimentary rocks have

circle grains

2 types of sedimentary rocks

Detrial and chemical