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19 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What is DNA?

The hereditary material found in the nucleus

What are the four bases in DNA





Explain the structure of the DNA

Each base is attached to a sugar and phosphate group.

A base, sugar and phosphate is called a nucleotide.

Nucleotides are arranged in 2 long strands that form a spiral called a double helix

Define a nucleotide

Organic molecules that serve as the monomers or sub-units of nucleus acids like DNA or RNA

Define codon

A sequence of 3 dna or rna nucleotides that corresponds with a specific amino acid or stop signal during protein synthesis

What does redundancy mean?

The genetic code has redundancy due to the fact that 2 or more codons can specify the same amino acid. Therefore - more codons than amino acids in any given translation, so some codons will be redundant

What are proteins made out of?

Amino acids

Where do we get amino acids from?

Our food

What are the 3 structures that all proteins have?

1) carbon with a hydrogen group 'carbon alpha'

2) Nitrogen with 2 hydrogens attached

3)carboxyl group

What is the only thing that changes from protein to protein?

The R group

Define protein synthesis.

Individual cells build their specific proteins

Transcription define

The transcription of the code for a polypeptide from the DNA is the nucleus and carries it to the ribosomes/ cytoplasm so the original DNA doesn't get damaged leaving the nucleus

Step 1 of transcription

RNA polymerase unzips the DNA strand - exposing the gene/bases/nucleotides

Step two of transcription

Free nucleotides are matched to the exposed bases in the translate strand using the base pairing rule (U-A, G-C). Transcription forms a single mRNA strand with groups of 3 bases (codons) that code for the amino acids.

Step three of transcription

Transcription is complete when mRNA detaches and moves out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm and attaches to a ribosome in preparation for translation.

Translation define

To use mRNA to make a polypeptide

Step 1 of translation

Ribosomes move along the mRNA from the start codon until the stop codon is reached

Step 2 of translation

Each sequence of 3 bases (codon) on the mRNA is read by the ribosome and matched to the complementary unpaired 3 base sequence (anti-codon) on the trna

Step 3 of translation

The specific amino acid attached to to tRNA is then added (peptide bond forms) to the polypeptide chain being made