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128 Cards in this Set

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aposematic coloration
warning coloration, such as yellow, green, alternated with black
batesian minicry
minicry in which a harmless species resembles a noxious or harmful one
condition
environmental state, such as temperature, pH, humidity

cannot be used up
cryptic coloration
camouflage coloration, which blends into the background environment and helps organism avoid detection by others
ectotherm
species which regulates its body temperature by external heat sources; passive
endotherm
species which regulates its body temperature by internal, active mechanisms
homeotherm
species that maintains a constant body temperature
mullerian minicry
form of minicry in which noxious or harmful species resemble each other
poikilotherm
body temperature caries widely
resource
elements that an organism needs to survive and reproduce, such as mates, food, and nesting sites

localled, can be used up

it's limited and scope and place
ecology
- study of interaction between organisms and the biotic and abiotic environment
- technique range from basic surveys using measuring tape and map, to sophisicated molecular methods and DNA analysis
- every taxonomic group from bacteria to animals
- can include experiment, observation, or both
abiotic factors
such as water, temp, pH, salinity, mineral concentration, current flow, etc. affect where organism can control
Selford's Law of Tolerance
predicts an organism ability to grow and reproduce under certain a biotic conditions

range of condition on X axis
number of individuals on the Y

label axis when showing example of the term
the law of tolerance is demonstrated in _____terms in zoos and botanic gardens
practical
in _______
it can be difficult to find the righ range of conditions to sllow for reproduction of a species
____ can be used up
resource
____ cannot be used up
conditions
biomes
are large geographic areas described by temp, water, and other abiotic gradients

plants and animal distributions also help characterize biomes
9 biomes
desert 19%
boreal forest 17%
temp. grassland 13%
trop. forest 13%
tundra 11%
savanna 10%
temperate forest 8%
mountains 6%
scrub 3%
desert
19%
high light
low water
boreal forest
17%
temparate grassland
13%
tropical forest
13%
tundra
11%
savanna
10%
temperate forest
8%
mountains
6%
scrubs
3%
mechanisms of body temp maintnance
poikotherm vs. homeothern
ectotherm vs. endotherm
we humans are...
homeotherm and endotherm "warm blooded"
nickname for a poikotherm and ectotherm
"cold blooded"
___ are homeotherm ectotherm
bees
____ and ____ have to be a big organism, such as camels
poikotherm and endotherm
acclimatization
The physiological adaptation of an animal or plant to changes in climate or environment, such as light, temperature, or altitude.

example - owls or amphibians
biotic factors
coevolutionary relationship, in which genetic change in one species causes.results from change in the other other

may be adaptive for one, both, or neither in the interaction
+/-
adaptive/not
______ _______, in which genetic change in one species causes.results from change in the other other
coevolutionary relationship
_____ two or more species physically or behaviorally similar due to advantages of similar appearance
mimicry
three types of mimicry
batesian, mullerian, and mertension
batesian
model is toxic
mimic is not

exmaple:
coral snake - model
colubrid snake - mimic
mullerian
model and mimic are noxious or toxic
mertension
model is harmless
mimic is noxious
interaction 2: mutualism
+/+
- both species interact for mutual benefit
- may be obligate or facultative
can potentially degenerate into parasitism into parat
lichens are a form of ______ b/w a fungus
mutualism
interaction 3: parasitism
+/-
one species benefits (parasite), other loses (host)

may be internal or external the body or brood
cymothoa
sacculina
schistosomes
baylisascaris
parasite
internal
live within the body tissues
external
lives on the surface
brood
exploit parental care of host
_____ suceed in manipulating their hosts
parasite
ways of manipulating
- destroy host reproductive tissues
- destroy host neural tissues
- induce alternalte host behaviors through hormones
brown-headed cowbird
lays their own eggs in another nest and kicks out the other eggs

example of a brood parasite
red queen hypothesis
lfdkgj
things to worry about a parasite
transmission
infectivity
virulence
transmission
ability to move from host to host
infectivity
ability to get into the host and start reproducing
virulence
ability to cause harm to the host (pathogenicity)
interation 4: predation
- one species benefits, other loses
- includes killing and consumption of an organism
interation 4: predation
- one species benefits, other loses
- includes killing and consumption of an organism
prey adaptations
colorations
stotting - in antelope
selfish herd - grouping to reduce predation
making themselves un pallable
interaction 5: competition
- both species in competitive interaction may lose -/-
- results from use of a common limiting resource
_________ organisms seek access to a common limited
competition
possible outcomes to competition
- competitive exclusion - one loses
- coexistence - requires that the two species diverge in their niche
niche
range of resources used by an organism
graph of a niche
range of resource of the X
number of individual on the Y
_____ competition, nichese may overlap, and competition intensity can be high
before
____ competition overlaping forms may die and shift
after
for test
know examples of ALL terms
ecosystem> community> population> individual (behavior)
ldfkdsl
altruism
self-sacrificial behaviors directed toward another individual, which enables the survuval and/or reproduction of the helped individual
classical conditioning
a response to some cue is conditioned to another cue
to understand behavior
- understand perceptual world of other organisms
- link to population processes and behavior as adaptation
- gain understanding of out own behavior
fixed action patter
a patterm of behavior that is stereotypic, spontaneous, and independent of immediate control or individual learning
group selection
an unlikely form of selection that favors individuals exhibiting altruistic acts "for the good of the species" rather than for selfish gain
innate traits
developed without learning or other forms of input or feedback from the environment, and may or may not easily altered by specific environmental influences
Konrad Lorenz
inprinting and instinct
intrasexual selection
differences in numbers of mating caused by competition between members of one sex for access to the other sex; mate competition
Max von Frisch
honeybee dances & communication
Niko Tinbergen
gull behavior and learning instinct; all three shared nobel prize in physiology
intersecual selection
difference in numbers of matings caused be dicrimination or sensitivity by members of one sex among members of opposite sex; mate choice
Tinbergen's four questions
_______ind___________pop
causes: mechanisms adaptiviness
orgins: development phylogenetic
mechanism
genetic
neurological
hormones
other physio
mechanism in grouse
in grouse, males begin to exhibit mating behaviors when sex hormones rise
development
instincts
learning
instincts x learning
development in grouse
females seem to learn mate...
adaptiviness
survival reproduction
in grouse (adaptiveness)
male grouse that attract the most females have higher reproductive success. However display is costly to survival
phylogenetic
development of behavior ancestry
in grouse phylogenetic
the grouse family generally shows this mate choice...
play
carnivores
primates
red queen hypothesis
describes coevolution between host and parasite as being locked together, with improvement in one selecting for improvement in the other
two outcomes of competition
competitive exclusive
coexistence and niche devergence
instinct
behavior exhibit without feedback from environment
learned behavior
behavior that can be altered in response to information acquired from environment and through two main mechanism (classical & operant)
fixed action pattern
the instinctual bahavior; in this case, instinct is pecking at red dot on parents bill
the red dot acts as a _______ _______
sign stimulus
classical conditioning
animal doesn't have to do anything
operant
trains animal to perform a task to gain some kind of reward or benefit; trial and error learning
natural selection
differential survival & reproduction
sexual reproduction
differential reproduction only
intresexual selection
mate competition
intersexual selection
mate choice
social behavior
ruodo
self sacrifice
altruism
natural selection
survival; reproduction
kin selection
special form of selection
An instinct is
a behavior exhibited without feedback from environment
Learned behavior
behavior that can be altered in response to information acquired from environment
What components can be included in the "mechanisms" portion of Tinbergen's four questions?
hormones
A fixed action pattern is
the instinctual behavior
What triggers an instinct/fixed action pattern?
sign stimulus
Learned behaviors occur through the main mechanisms
classical conditioning
Tinbergen's four questions are divided into
evolutionary (ultimate) questions - species
Classical conditioning is synonymous with the
Pavlovian response
Operant conditioning differs from classical in that
whereas with classical
Natural selection
differential survival and reproduction in animals
Sexual selection
differential reproduction only
Intrasexual selection
mate competition in aspects such as size
Intersexual selection
mate choice
ornamentation
song
The third type of behavior
in addition to learned and mating
Altruism
self-sacrifice
Kin selection
works on the genetic level; by helping related individuals
rb - c > 0
altruism results
rb - c < 0
selfishness results
1. Raise cousins: get 8 fitness units
costs 1.
2. Raise siblings: get 8 fitness units
costs 3.
3. Raise own offsprings: get 4 fitness units
costs 2.