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183 Cards in this Set

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What is nutrition?

Process in which body uses food and proper nutrients in the diet!

What is malnutrition?

A condition resulting from a lack of proper nutrients in the diet.

Who is at risk for an inadequate nutritional intake?

Older adults who are socially isolated or living on fixed incomes. Homeless people. Children of economically deprived parents. Pregnant teenagers. People with substance abuse problems, such as alcoholism. Clients with eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

What are five factors that influence nutritional needs?

Age, weight and height, gender, activity, health status.

What is a calorie?

The amount of heat that raises the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 degree Celsius, is one way to express the value energy of food.

What is the protein?

A component of every living cell, is the nutrient composed of amino acids, which are chemical compounds composed of nitrogen, carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. Amino acids are responsible for building and repairing cells.

How many essential amino acids are there?


What is an essential amino acid?

Protein components that must be obtained from food because the body cannot synthesize them.

What is a non-essential amino acid?

Protein component manufactured within the body.

How many calories do men and women need?

Men 2400 to 3,000. Women 1800 to 2400.

What is a complete protein?

Proteins that contain adequate amounts and proportions of all essential amino acids.

What is an incomplete protein?

Proteins that contain insufficient quantities of one or more essential amino acids.

What is protein complementation?

Combining plant sources of protein so that amino acids that are missing, and one is compensated by those contained in another.

What are some protein food sources?

Animal food sources, plant food sources, milk, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, soy, legumes, peas, beans, peanuts, nuts, and components of grains.

Generally animal sources provide what?

Complete proteins

What is the saccharide?

Sugar. Carbohydrates are subdivided into monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides (starches).

What do carbohydrates provide?

Quick energy source, may contain fiber, complex polysaccharides that humans are unable to digest.

What is cellulose?

Type of fiber in the stems, skins, and the leaves of fruits and vegetables, which forms intestinal bulk to promote bowel elimination.

What are some sources of carbohydrates?

Cereals, grains such as rice, wheat and wheat germ, oats, barley, corn, and corn meal, fruits and vegetables, and sweeteners.

What are fats?

Nutrients that contain molecules composed of glycerol and fatty acids called glycerides, are part of a compound known collectively as lipids.

What are fats referred to as?

Monoglycerides, diglycerides, or triglycerides.

What are fats necessary for?

Fats provide energy and are necessary for many chemical reactions in the body, are also necessary for the absorption of some vitamins. (A,D,E,K) Fat also adds flavor to food and because they leave the stomach slowly, they promote a feeling of having satisfied appetite and hunger.

What are some food sources that contain fat?

Meat, fish, poultry, butter, margarine, vegetable oils, egg yolks, whole milk and cheese, peanut butter, salad dressings, avocados, chocolate, nuts, salty snacks, and most desserts.

What is the lipoprotein?

A combination of fats and proteins, the more protein the molecule contains, the higher its density.

High-density lipoprotein?

Is referred to as good cholesterol, because the cholesterol is delivered to the liver for removal.

Low density lipoprotein?

Low density lipoprotein is called bad cholesterol, because cholesterol is deposited within the walls of the arteries, which can eventually result and cardiovascular disease.

What is the saturated fat?

They are lipids that contain as much hydrogen as their molecular structure can hold, and are generally solid.

What are some types of saturated fats?

Predominant type of fat and red meats, full fat, dairy products, and palm in coconut oils.

Where is cholesterol found?

Cholesterol is only present in foods of animal origin, but the body also synthesizes cholesterol.

What is an unsaturated fat?

Are the predominant type of fat in fish, poultry, nuts, and most plant oils, such as corn, safflower, Olive, peanut, and sweeping. They are missing some hydrogen and are healthier forms of fat in are liquid at room temperature.

What is a trans fat?

Also known as partially hydrogenated oils, or unsaturated fats that have been hydrogenated, a process in which hydrogen is added to the fats. Hydrogenated, a process in which hydrogen is added to the fats, changes the unsaturated fat to a more saturated form, that remain solid at room temperature.

What does hydrogenation do?

Reduces the rate of which of fat becomes Rancid, thus increasing the shelf life of food items.

What is healthy people of 2020?

One goal the government Advocates is for at least 50% of people 2 years and older to consume no more than 29.8% of their daily calories from fat, of that less than 9.5% should be saturated fat.

What does the American Heart Association indicate that trans fats increase the risk of?

Coronary heart disease

What do Healthcare Providers use to assess clients risks for cardiac and vascular disease?

Cholesterol, lipoprotein, and triglyceride levels.

What are minerals?

Like vitamins, minerals are substances found in food that your body needs for growth and health. There are two kinds of minerals: macrominerals and traceminerals. Macrominerals are minerals your body needs in larger amounts. They include calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, potassium, and chloride. They help regulate many of the body's chemical processes such as blood clotting and the conduction of nerve impulses.

Sodium's Chief function and sources?

Maintenance of water and electrolyte balance, table salt and processed Meats.

Potassium Chief function and sources?

Maintenance of electrolyte balance, neuromuscular activity, enzyme reactions and are found in bananas oranges and potatoes.

What are the chief functions and sources of chloride?

Maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance and is found and table salt and processed meat.

What is the chief function of calcium and what is its sources?

Formation of teeth and bones, neuromuscular activity, blood coagulation and cell wall permeability. Found in milk and milk products.

What is the chief function of phosphorus in what is some sources?

The main function of phosphorus is in the formation of bones and teeth.It plays an important role in how the body uses carbohydrates and fats. It is also needed for the body to make protein for the growth, maintenance, and repair of cells and tissues. Phosphorus also helps the body make ATP, a molecule the body uses to store energy. Are found in eggs meat milk.

What are some Chief functions of iodine and some sources?

Regulation of body metabolism and promotion of normal growth. Are found in seafood and iodized salt.

What are some Chief functions of iron and common dietary sources?

Component of hemoglobin and assistance in cellular oxidation. Are found in liver, clams, oysters, egg yolks, soybeans, tofu, red meats, Swiss chard, and spinach.

What is the chief function of magnesium and some sources?

Neuromuscular activity, activation of enzymes, formation of teeth and bones. Are found in whole grains milk and meat.

What is zinc and its Chief functions and sources?

Constitute of enzymes and insulin. Are found in seafood and liver.

What is a fortified food?

Have nutrients added that were not originally and naturally present in the food or were present in in significant amounts.

What are vitamins?

Vitamins are chemical substances necessary and minute amounts for normal growth, the maintenance of health, and the functioning of the body.

What are water soluble vitamins?

Are eliminated with body fluids and so required daily replacement. B complex and C.

What are fat soluble vitamins?

The fat-soluble vitamins are soluble in lipids (fats). These vitamins are usually absorbed in fat globules (called chylomicrons) that travel through the lymphatic system of the small intestines and into the general blood circulation within the body. They are stored in the body as reserves for future needs. A, D, E, and K.

What is a megadose?

Amount exceeding considered adequate for health.

What is my plate?

Introduced in 2011 by the US Department of Agriculture, replaces that previously used food pyramid, improve simplified tool for promoting healthy are daily intake of food, 30% of grains of which half are preferably whole grains, 30% vegetables, 20% fruits, 20% protein, which are accompanied by low-fat and non-fat milk or other reduced-fat dairy products.

What is the daily value standard?

Total fat equals less than 65 grams, saturated fat equals less than 20 grams, cholesterol equals less than 300 mg, sodium equals less than 2400 mg, total carbohydrate equals 300, dietary fiber equals 25 grams.

Influences on eating habits...

Most people learn their eating habits early in life cultural, economic, emotional, and social variables influence the kind of food a person consumes. Some influential factors include the following food preferences acquired during childhood, establish patterns for meals, attitudes for nutrition, knowledge of nutrition, income level, and time available for food preparation, number of people in the household, access to Food markets, use of food for Comfort,Celebration or symbolic reward, satisfaction or dissatisfaction with body weight, and religious beliefs.

What is a vegetarian?

Are people who restrict their consumption of animal food sources, modified their diets for religious or personal reasons.

What is a vegan?

Rely exclusively on plant sources for protein. Semi-vegetarians exclude only red meat. Vegetarians have a lower incidence of colorectal cancer and fewer problems with obesity and diseases associated with high fat diet.

What is the diet history and what do they look for?

Is an assessment technique for obtaining facts about eating habits and factors that affect nutrition. The level of appetite and intentional weight loss or gain of 10% in the past six months. The number of meals the client eats per day. Foods that the client has eaten in the previous 24 hour. Time when the client generally eats meals. Frequency with which the client eats meals alone. Their likes, dislikes, allergies, and cultural beliefs about food. The amount the client eats daily or weekly. Vitamin or mineral supplements the client takes. Any problems with eating, digestion, or elimination. Special diets that have been medically prescribed. The use of over the counter drugs, such as antacids oral laxatives. Food supplements or restrictions and the reason for them. Their desire to improve nutritional intake or to gain or lose weight.

Anthropometric data is

Are measurements pertaining to body size and composition. An example body mass index provides numeric data to compare a person's size in relation to established norms for the adult population. Arm circumference helps determine skeletal muscle mask. Tricep skinfold measurement as additional data for estimating the amount of sub continuous fat deposits.

Abdominal circumference is?

Is an indirect measurement of Fatty adipose tissue that is distributed in an about the visceral of the abdomen.

Physical assessment the nurse assesses the following about the client

General appearance, condition of the teeth, ability to chew and swallow, gag reflex, characteristics of skin and hair, and Joint flexibility, and strength, and attention and concentration.

Laboratory tests includes?

Hemoglobin and hematocrit, glucose, serum albumin, levels that indicate protein status, cholesterol, triglyceride, and lipoprotein levels, that may reflect a need to adjust the amount of fat the client needs.

The nurse me identify one or more of the following nurse Diagnostics?

Imbalanced nutrition less than body requirements, and balanced nutrition more than body requirements, deficient knowledge nutrition, self-care deficit feeding, impaired swallowing, and risk for aspiration.

Obesity is what?

Is the condition in which a person's BMI equals or exceeds 30 or the tricep skinfold measurements exceed 15 mm.

Metabolic rate is what?

The speed at which the body uses calories.

Emaciation is what?

Excessive leanness and cachexia wasting away of the body tissue.


A lost of appetite


Usually precedes vomiting and is produced when gastrointestinal Sensations, Century data, and Drug affects stimulate a portion of medulla that contain the vomiting Center.


The act of vomiting without producing vomitus.



Regular or general diet consist of?

Allows unrestricted food selections

Light or convalescent diet?

Differs from regular diet in preparation, typically emits fried, fatty, gas forming, and raw foods and Rich pastries.

Soft diet consist of?

Soft food in texture and is usually low in residue and readily digestible. Contains few or no spices or condiments, provides fewer fruits, vegetables, or Meat, light diet.

Mechanical soft?

Resembles a light diet but is used for clients with chewing difficulties, provides cooked fruits and vegetables and ground meat.

Full liquid diet?

Fruit and vegetable juices, cream or Blended soups, milk, ice cream, yogurt without bits of fruit, pudding, milkshakes, custards, and cooked cereals.

Clear liquid diet?

Consist of items that may be colored, but are generally transparent and do not contain any pulp or bits of food. Examples include water, broth, Juices, flavored gelatin, popsicles, clear soft drinks, tea, and coffee.

Special therapeutic?

Consists of foods prepared to meet special needs, such as low and sodium, fat, calories, or Fiber.

A= retinol

Growth of body cells, Promotion of vision, healthy hair and skin, and integrity of epithelial membrane.Prevention of xerophthalmia-a condition characterized by chronic conjunctivitis. Found in animal fats and butter and cheese and cream and egg yolks and whole milk.

B1= thiamine-Not readily destroyed by head by ordinary cooking temperatures.

Carbohydrate metabolism, Functioning of the nervous system.Normal digestion and Prevention of beriberi-a condition characterized by neuritis. Can be found in fish and pork and lean meat and poultry, It can be found in milk and whole fortified and enriched breads cereals and Grains.

B2 =riboflavin- not destroyed by heat except in the presence of alkali

Chief functions formation of certain enzymes normal growth, light adoption in the eyes. Found in eggs, and green leafy vegetables, lean meat, milk, whole grains, dried yeast.

B3 =niacin

Chief functions carbohydrates, fat, and protein metabolism, enzyme components, prevention of appetite loss, prevention of pellagra- a condition characterized by cutaneous, gastrointestinal, neurologic, and mental systems. Found in lean meat and liver fish, peas, beans, whole grain cereals, peanuts, yeast, eggs, and liver.

B6 =pyridoxine and is destroyed by heat, sunlight and Air

Chief functions Healthy gums and Teeth, red blood cell formation, carbohydrates, fat, and protein metabolism. Found in whole grain cereals and wheat germ, vegetables, meat, bananas, blackstrap molasses.

B9= folic acid

Protein metabolism, red blood cell formation, Normal intestinal tract functioning. Is found in green leafy vegetables, granular organs and yeast.

B12 =cyanocobalamin

Protein metabolism, red blood cell formation, healthy nervous system tissues, prevention of pernicious anemia- which is condition characterized by decreased red blood cells. Found in liver and kidney, dairy products, lean meat, and milk. Also saltwater fish and oysters.

C= Ascorbic acid -readily destroyed by cooking

Healthy bones, teeth, and gums, formation of blood vessels and capillary walls, proper tissue and Bone healing, facilitation of iron and folic acid absorption, prevention of scurvy, a condition characterized by bleeding and abnormal bone and teeth formation. Found in citrus fruits and juices, Tomatoes, berries, cabbage, green vegetables, potatoes.

D=Calciferol-Relatively stable with refrigeration

Absorption of calcium and phosphorus, prevention of rickets, a condition characterized by weak bonds. Found in fish liver oil, salmon, tuna, milk, and yolks, butter, livers, and oysters and formed in the skin by exposure to sunlight.

E =Alpha-tocopherol-which is heat stable and the absence of oxygen

Chief function is red blood cell formation, protection and essential fatty acids, important for normal reproduction in experimental animals. They are found in wheat germ, oil, green leafy vegetables, margarine, and brown rice.

Pantothenic acid

Chief function is metabolism. They are found in liver and egg yolks and milk.

h= Biotin- heat sensitive

Enzyme activity, metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Found in egg yolks, green vegetables, milk, liver and the kidney, and yeast.

Vitamin K=menadione

Production of prothrombin. Found in liver, eggs, green leafy vegetables, synthesized and gastrointestinal tract by bacteria.

A client with anemia has been prescribed injections of cyanocobalamin. Which foods high in this vitamin will the nurse also recommend that the client consume?
lean steak, milk, yogurt, saltwater fish.

Cyanocobalamin, otherwise known as vitamin B12, is found in lean meats, milk and dairy products, and saltwater fish and oysters. It is not found in high concentrations in foods like peas or butter.

Most nutritionists recommend having a proper amount of fiber in the diet. In addition to other benefits, how does fiber affect cholesterol?
Increases fecal excretion of cholesterol. To help lower serum cholesterol levels, researchers recommend limiting cholesterol intake, eating less total fat, eating more unsaturated fat, and increasing fiber intake. Fiber increases fecal excretion of cholesterol.
A nurse is caring for a client diagnosed with high risk for cardiovascular disease. Which item should the nurse make sure is not on the client's dietary tray?
Red meat. A client with a high risk of cardiovascular disease should not be given red meat, which is high in cholesterol. Cholesterol absorbs fatty acids and binds them to molecules of protein referred to as lipoproteins (combination of fats and proteins). High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is referred to as "good cholesterol" because the cholesterol is delivered to the liver for removal. Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is called "bad cholesterol" because the cholesterol is deposited within the walls of arteries, which can eventually result in cardiovascular disease. Corn does not contain cholesterol. Fish and eggs have less cholesterol than does red meat.
A nurse observes that a client coughs and chokes when eating. What instructions should the nurse prepare for this client?
Tell the client to chew his food very thoroughly. The nurse should suggest that the client chew the food thoroughly and encourage repeated swallowing attempts. Preparing a liquid diet or restricting milk and beverages is not a solution for preventing choking during meals.
A client with influenza is prescribed a diet that is rich in fiber and carbohydrates. Which would the nurse incorporate into the education plan as a major reason for the high fiber diet?
maintenance of normal bowel elimination. Dietary fiber is a minimal source of energy but plays an essential role in stimulating peristalsis and maintaining normal bowel elimination. Proteins have specific functions of producing hemoglobin for carrying oxygen to tissues, insulin for blood glucose regulations, and albumin for regulating osmotic pressure in the blood. Fats perform the important functions of energy storage of adipose tissue, vitamin absorption, and transport of fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K.Reference:
The average dietary nutrient intake level that meets the nutritional requirement of almost all healthy people in a selected age and gender group is the:
RDA level. The RDA level is the average dietary intake level that meets the nutritional requirement of almost all healthy people in a selected age and gender group.
An athlete wants to increase her intake of complex carbohydrates and asks the nurse about potential sources. Which food is considered a complex carbohydrate?
Bread. Bread, cereal, potatoes, rice, pasta, crackers, flour products, and legumes contain complex carbohydrates.
A client has just had abdominal surgery, and the nurse is consulting with him about his diet now that he is allowed to eat. Which nutrient is most important for wound healing?
Protein. Complete proteins contain sufficient amounts of the essential amino acids to maintain body tissues and to promote growth.
Which of the following is a fat-soluble vitamin?
Vitamin E. Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin.
A client who has bleeding tendencies has a deficiency in which vitamin?
Vitamin K. Vitamin K deficiencies are manifested in two ways: an increased tendency to hemorrhage and hemorrhagic disease of the newborn, which is common in premature or anoxic newborns.
A nurse calculates the BMI of a client during a general survey as 26. Under which category would this client fall?
Overweight. BMI values are: Underweight <18.5; normal 18.5 to 24.9; overweight 25.0 to 29.9; obesity class I 30.0 to 34.9; obesity class II 35.0 to 39.9; and extreme obesity 40.0+.
A nurse is teaching a class on diet and nutrition to a group of mothers who are breast-feeding their infants. What would the nurse tell this group is the emphasis of nutritional guidelines?
variety. Emphasis of nutritional guidelines is on variety; increased intake of vegetables, fruits, lentils, and grains, particularly from plant sources; and meeting individual nutritional needs while avoiding either deficiencies or excesses in nutrient intake.
A healthy, nonpregnant, nonlactating woman asks the nurse how many calories a day she should consume. Which response from the nurse is accurate?
1,600 to 2,400 cal/day. The number of calories a person needs depends on age, body size, physical condition, and physical activity. On average, healthy adult women require 1,600 to 2,400 cal/day and adult men require 2,000 to 3,000 cal/day; the lower end of the range is for sedentary individuals, whereas the higher end is for active individuals (U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2010).
A nurse is caring for a client who has a body mass index (BMI) of 26.5. Which category should the nurse understand this client would be placed in?
Overweight. A client with a BMI below 18.5 should be considered underweight. A client with a BMI of 18.5 to 24.9 is considered to be at a healthy weight. A client with a BMI of 25 to 29.9 is considered overweight; a client with a BMI of 30 or greater indicates obesity. A BMI greater than 40 is considered extreme obesity.
A nurse in a rural health center meets a new client, age 4. The nurse notices as the client enters the clinic that his legs appear to be bowed. When he smiles, the nurse also notes that his dentition is quite malformed for a child his age. What vitamin deficiency would the nurse most suspect?
Vitamin D. Severe vitamin D deficiency manifests as rickets, osteomalacia, poor dentition, and tetany.
The nurse is caring for four clients. The nurse recognizes that which client’s lifestyle choice contributes most highly to risk for development of cardiometabolic syndrome?
28-year old who eats fast food daily. The client with the modifiable risk factor of consuming daily fast food is at highest risk for developing cardiometabolic syndrome. The other clients are not at as high of a risk.
The community nurse is educating client groups about nutrition. Which group does the nurse identify that will benefit most from nutritional counseling and intervention?
older adults living on a fixed income. Older adults who are socially isolated or living on fixed incomes will benefit most from nutritional counseling and intervention. Other individuals are not at the same level of risk
The nurse is helping a client who wishes to increase Omega-3 fatty acids order breakfast. Which food will the nurse recommend?
salmon . Omega-3 fatty acids are found in fish such as salmon, halibut, sardines, olive oil, flaxseed, walnuts, and certain types of legumes. The other food choices do not contain Omega-3 fatty acids.
The nurse is teaching four clients in a community health center. Which client does the nurse identify as needing more servings per day of milk?
teenager who is in the second trimester of pregnancy. Children, adolescents, pregnant women, and breast-feeding mothers require more servings per day of certain food groups, particularly the milk group. Therefore, the teen (adolescent) who is pregnant will require more milk servings. The other clients do not require more servings of milk.
A postmenopausal client wishes to increase the amount of vitamin D that she consumes to help keep her bones strong. Which food will the nurse recommend?
milk. Milk contains vitamin D, which helps with the absorption of calcium and phosphorous. The other choices do not.
Upon assessment, the nurse determines the client has a body mass index (BMI) of 45. This finding indicates the client is:
extremely obese.. A person with a BMI below 18.5 is underweight, a BMI of 25 to 29.9 indicates an overweight individual, a BMI of 30 or greater indicates obesity, and a BMI of 40 or greater indicates extreme obesity.
The nurse has observed that a client's food intake has diminished in recent days. What intervention should the nurse perform in order to stimulate the client's appetite?
Try to ensure that the client's food is attractive and sufficiently warm. Food in the health care setting can often be unattractive and cool. Ensuring that it is appealing to the eyes and presented at the correct temperature can stimulate the client's appetite. Meals should be small and more frequent, not less frequent and larger. Supplements may be nutritionally necessary, but these do not act to increase the client's appetite.
What independent nursing intervention can be implemented to stimulate appetite?
Encourage or provide oral care. There are many methods of stimulating appetite in a client to prevent malnutrition. One independent nursing intervention that is useful is to encourage or provide oral care.
A nurse is caring for a client with a wound infection. The dietician has prescribed a diet rich in vitamin A. The client asks the nurse, "Why do I need Vitamin A?" The nurse integrates an understanding of which rationale as a major reason when responding to the client?
It helps maintain healthy epithelium... Vitamin A is important for maintenance of healthy epithelium, maintenance of normal vision (especially in dim light), promotion of normal skeletal and tooth development, and promotion of normal cellular proliferation. Vitamin D promotes mobilization of calcium and phosphorus from bone, renal reabsorption of calcium, normal mineralization of bone and cartilage, intestinal absorption of calcium, and maintenance of calcium extracellular fluid for normal muscle contraction.
A woman consumes pasta, grains, and other carbohydrates for which purpose?
Energy.. The main function of carbohydrates is to provide energy.
An older adult client has a decubitus ulcer with drainage, dysphagia, and immobility. She consumes less than 300 calories per day and has a large amount of interstitial fluid. The client is in a state of:
negative nitrogen balance...A negative nitrogen balance exists when excretion of nitrogen exceeds the intake.
A nurse is preparing a presentation for a local community group on healthy nutrition using information from the USDA's website, Which recommendation would the nurse be least likely to include?
Switching to whole milk.. According to the food guide, individuals should switch to fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk, monitor portion sizes, drink water instead of sugary drinks, and make one-half the plate for fruits and vegetables.
A nurse is preparing an education plan for a client who is scheduled for a diagnostic procedure that requires a clear liquid diet the day before the procedure. When teaching the client about what he may consume, which food would the nurse include? Select all that apply.
Apple juice, Gelatin, Tea.. A clear liquid diet includes only liquids that lack residue such as juices without pulp (apple cranberry), tea, gelatin, soda pop, and clear broth. A full liquid diet includes all foods and fluids that become liquid at room temperature, such as ice cream. Pureed vegetables would be appropriate for a mechanical soft diet, often used for clients who have difficulty chewing.
The client reports to the nurse that she feels as if her eyes are persistently dry. This symptom is consistent with a deficiency in which dietary element?
Vitamin A.. Dryness of the eyes (xerophthalmia) is associated with a deficiency of vitamin A.
Friends bring a 23-year-old woman to the emergency department after she fell down a flight of stairs at a party. The nurse notes that the client has very little muscle mass or fat stores on her body. What syndrome should the nurse suspect the woman has?
cachexia.. Cachexia means a highly catabolic state with accelerated muscle loss and a chronic inflammatory response. It is a distinct syndrome separate from anorexia with the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines that contribute to the breakdown of fat and muscle protein, causing loss of both muscle mass and fat stores.
The nurse is preparing to perform a nutritional assessment for a client. Which question would be most appropriate to use when initiating the assessment?
"Can you tell me what you've eaten in the last 24 hours?".. The assessment should begin with questions regarding the client's dietary habits and should elicit information about average daily food and fluid intake. A 24-hour diet recall would be the best question to gather this information. Then the nurse can gather more specific data such as meals eaten, meal pattern, and other areas such as eating out.
A client resides in a long-term care facility. Which nursing intervention would promote increased dietary intake?
Encourage the client to eat in the dining room...Encouraging the client to eat in the dining room will allow for socialization during meal time. This will have a positive effect on the amount of food consumed and provide enjoyment.
A nurse is inserting a nasogastric tube in a client with an ileus. Which actions would be appropriate for the nurse to use to confirm correct placement of the tube? Select all that apply.
Aspirate stomach contents to check pH level. Do a radiographic examination. Measure tube length and tube marking... The correct methods to check placement of the nasogastric tube include aspiration of stomach contents to check pH level, measurement of tube length and tube marking, and radiographic examination. Auscultation of injected air over the epigastric space is no longer an accepted or reliable way to check placement of the nasogastric tube. Listening for gurgling at the end of the nasogastric tube is not a way to ensure correct placement.
A nurse is teaching a client about nutrition. Which facts should the nurse include about fat-soluble vitamins? Select all that apply.
Fat-soluble vitamins are A, D, E, and K. Fat-soluble vitamins must be attached to a protein for transport in the blood. Deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins can occur with malabsorption syndromes...Fat-soluble vitamins are A, D, E, and K. These vitamins must be attached to a protein to be transported through the blood. Deficiencies can occur during malabsorption diseases because fat digestion or absorption is altered. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the liver and adipose tissue. Therefore, deficiencies can take weeks, months, or years to develop.
A nurse is teaching a client about diabetes and glucose monitoring. What should the nurse include in the teaching?
Blood from the fingertips shows changes in glucose more quickly than other testing sites.. With glucose monitoring, blood from the fingertips shows changes in blood glucose more quickly than other testing sites. With signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia, a fingertip site should be used. Calibrate the glucose monitors at least every month. Glucose levels increase with illness and stress to the body.
A 16-year-old adolescent informs her nurse that she became a vegetarian 1 year ago. Lately she is reporting fatigue and has trouble concentrating. A quick blood test ordered by her licensed provider informs the nurse that she has pernicious anemia. This is a deficiency of what vitamin?
Vitamin B12.. Vitamin B12 deficiency is most commonly found in vegetarians, particularly in strict vegans. Individuals who have such rigid dietary restrictions must take care to supplement this vitamin.
A nurse is working with a 45-year-old construction worker. The nurse obtains his height and weight and calculates that his BMI is 28. How would the nurse best classify James?
Overweight.. A body mass index (BMI) between 25 and 29.9 is considered overweight.
A nurse is working with a 46-year-old woman who is working to lose weight. Based on recommendations from the USDA regarding diet modification, which is not appropriate advice for this client?
Drink juice for majority of fluid intake... Water should comprise the majority of fluid intake. The remainder should come from food sources such as fruit or 100% fruit juices.
A nurse is working with a 35-year-old woman who is interested in losing weight. Based on current recommendations from the USDA and what the nurse knows about a typical U.S. diet, which are appropriate recommendations for healthy weight loss? Select all that apply.
Increase the number of complex carbohydrates. Decrease the number of calories ingested. Increase physical activity...Cutting carbohydrates is not necessary for long-term weight loss.
A client is discussing vitamin and mineral intake with the nurse. Which client statement requires further nursing teaching?
“My husband and I are ordering a product that has megadoses of vitamins.”.. Consuming megadoses (amounts exceeding those considered adequate for health) of vitamins and minerals can be dangerous. This statement requires further nursing teaching. The other statements do not require further teaching.
A dietitian is providing an in-service for the nurses on a medical-surgical unit. During the in-service, the dietitian informs the group that there are six classes of nutrients, and three supply the body with energy. What are the three sources of energy?
carbohydrates, protein, and lipids.. Of the six classes of nutrients, three supply energy (carbohydrates, protein, and lipids), and three are needed to regulate body processes (vitamins, minerals, and water).
The nurse caring for a client for several days has assessed that he has been eating poorly during his hospitalization. Which nursing measure should the nurse implement to assist the client in improving his nutritional intake?
Encourage his daughter to prepare food at home and bring it to the client.. The nurse should solicit food preferences and encourage favorite foods from home, when possible. Be sure the foods look attractive and the eating area is free of odors, clutter, and distractions during mealtime. Provide small, frequent meals to avoid overwhelming the client with large amounts of food.
A nurse is caring for a client with anorexia. What is the best evidence that the client is responding to the diet recommended by the dietitian?
The client feels hungry.. Anorexia is loss of appetite. It is associated with multiple factors: illness, altered taste and smell, oral problems, and tension and depression. If the client feels hungry, it is the best evidence that a client is responding to the nutritional regimen and care. Alertness and relief from pain are not evidence that anorexia is resolving. Electrolytes can often be stabilized through intravenous infusions.
A nurse is collecting the objective data from a client during the physical assessment. What anthropometric data about the client is documented by the nurse?
clothing.. When recording anthropometric data, the nurse records the clothing the client wears along with the date and time, and the type of scale. It is important to duplicate all these factors when taking subsequent weights for comparison. The nurse measures the client's height without shoes and records the actual weight, rather than the client's estimated weight. It is not possible to measure and record client's body water.
As part of a client's physical assessment, a nurse measures the client's midarm circumference. The nurse interprets this measurement as indicative of:
protein status.. Muscles are the major protein stores and help evaluate protein status by measuring the midarm circumference. They also provide information about the muscle mass. To evaluate adequacy of calorie intake, the nurse calculates the calories present in every food item eaten by the client, not the midarm circumference of the client. To determine fat stores in the body, the nurse measures the skinfolds of the client. To determine blood flow in the extremities, the nurse assesses the client's capillary refil by pressing on the nail beds of the client.
Which food eaten with peanut butter would provide the client with complete protein?
Milk.. Complete proteins, such as milk, typically come from animal sources. Proteins from plant sources, such as soybeans, are usually incomplete. Carrots and bread are not significant protein sources.
When planning interventions in the immediate hours after birth the nurse recognizes the need to provide an injection of which vitamin (to manage a lack of it), due to lack of bacteria in the intestinal tract?
Vitamin K.. Approximately half of the body's requirement of vitamin K is synthesized by bacteria in the lower intestinal tract.
The nurse is caring for a client with an enlarged thyroid. What nutritional deficiency is linked to an enlarged thyroid?
Iodine.. A chronic deficiency of iodine can lead to endemic goiter. The major initial symptom is an enlarged thyroid gland.
A client asks the nurse about suggestions to ensure that he consumes an adequate amount of complete proteins. Which foods would be appropriate for the nurse to suggest? Select all that apply.
Fish, Cheese, Eggs.. Sources of complete proteins include meats, fish, poultry, milk, cheese, and eggs. Peanut butter and rice are examples of incomplete proteins.
The nurse is providing education about nutrition and feeding to the mother of a toddler. Which statement by the child's mother indicates understanding of the education?
"Boiled eggs and pieces of cheese are good snacks for my child.".. Toddlers are often independent and insist on feeding themselves. Appropriate “finger foods” include meatballs, hard-boiled eggs, cooked carrots, fruit slices (without skins), cheese pieces, dry cereal, and crackers. Avoid whole grapes, hard candy, and other foods that could cause choking.
During an annual physical examination the client reports feeling a lack of muscle energy when walking and doing simple chores around the house. When reviewing the client's diet, deficiencies in which of the following would be associated with the symptoms reported? Select all that apply.
Niacin, Thiamine. Vitamins in the B complex such as niacin and thiamine are associated with confusion and motor weakness.
The nurse is providing an education program to teens. When discussing the role of fat in our bodies, which function can be attributed to fat? Select all that apply.
Vitamin absorption, Protection from injury, Energy, Cellular transport.. Fat is a component of all body cells and ideally makes up approximately 20% of the body weight of healthy, nonobese people. Fat performs many important functions, including cellular transport, insulation, protection of vital organs in the form of padding, provision of energy, energy storage of adipose tissue, vitamin absorption, and transport of fat-soluble vitamins (vitamins A, D, E, and K).
A nurse is teaching clients about nutrition. How many kilocalories per gram would the nurse explain that proteins yield? Record your answer using a number.
When proteins, carbohydrates, and fats are metabolized, they produce energy. Proteins yield 4 kcal/g.
A 45-year-old female client on the inpatient unit has just resumed eating a normal diet. The nurse checks a blood sugar with her morning labs and the result is 5.5 mmol/L. How would the nurse interpret this blood glucose?
Normal.. Normal blood glucose is 80 to 110 mg/dL (4 to 7 mmol/L).
A nurse is working with a 54-year-old obese man who is interested in losing weight. He asks the nurse why trans fats are so bad for you. The nurse’s response includes which answers? Select all that apply.
Trans fats lower HDL levels. Trans fats raise LDL levels. Trans fats raise cholesterol levels.. The level of HDL cholesterol, or “good” cholesterol, in the blood is lowered by trans fats.
An 84-year-old resident of a long-term care facility developed the early signs and symptoms of Alzheimer disease several months ago and has experienced a significant decline in food intake as the disease has progressed. What action should the nurse take in order to promote nutrition for this client?
Provide consistency in the time and place for eating each meal..Clients with cognitive deficits may benefit from consistency in the time and place for eating. New and unfamiliar foods are unlikely to appeal to this client and there is no need to completely eliminate seasonings and spices. A minced or pureed diet is easier to chew and swallow, but this unusual texture is unlikely to promote increased interest in eating.
A female client tells the nurse, “I try to consume 2000 calories daily by eating a variety of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.” What is the appropriate nursing response?
“That is a healthy amount of daily caloric intake.”.. Healthy adult women on average require 1800 to 2400 cal/day, with a mix of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. The nurse should affirm the client’s dietary choices. Other answers are incorrect and do not counsel the client appropriately.
The nurse is caring for four clients. Which client does the nurse assess to be at highest risk for cardiac and vascular disease?
lient with total cholesterol of 210 mg/dL, HDL 40 mg/dL.. Cardiac risk can be estimated by dividing the total serum cholesterol level, which should be less than 200 mg/dL, by the HDL level. A result greater than 5 suggests that a client has a potential for coronary artery disease. The client with total cholesterol of 210 mg has a result of 5.25, posing the greatest risk.
The nurse is helping a client who eats a normal diet of 2000 calories daily to read a nutritional label on a box of cereal. Which nutrient does the nurse identify as appropriate for this client?
cholesterol less than 300 mg.. Daily values are calculated in percentages based on standards set for total fat, saturated fat, cholesterol, sodium, carbohydrate, and fiber in a 2000-cal diet. Total fat should be less than 65 g; saturated fat should be less than 20 g; cholesterol should be less than 300 mg; and sodium should be less than 2400 mg.
The nurse is teaching a client about the use of MyPlate. Which teaching will the nurse include regarding the food group that should constitute 30% of the client’s daily meals? (Select all that apply.)
grains, vegetables.. Clients should eat 30% grains and 30% vegetables daily. Vegetables and fruits should be consumed as the ratio of 20% for each food group. These food groups are accompanied by low-fat/nonfat milk or other reduced fat dairy products
The nurse is caring for a client with malnutrition due to protein deficiency. Which foods should be included in this client's diet?
Meat and fish.. Dietary proteins come from animal and plant food sources. Milk, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, legumes (peas, beans, and peanuts), nuts, and components of grains are good sources of proteins. Animal sources contain all the essential amino acids and thus are sources of complete proteins. Green vegetables, citrus fruits, and roots and tubers are sources of vitamins and carbohydrates but will not help overcome protein deficiency.
A 40-year-old man has consumed a breakfast consisting of cereal, milk, orange juice, and coffee. His blood sugar in 2 hours is likely to be in what range?
140–180 mg/dL.. Normal blood glucose should be between 80 mg/dL and 110 mg/dL. Blood glucose 2 hours after a meal can rise to between 140 and 180 mg/dL, depending on the person's age.
To promote health of the fetus, the nurse should instruct the woman in the first trimester of pregnancy to:
eat foods high in folic acid... Folic acid deficiency in pregnant women can lead to neural tube deficits in the fetus. Women during pregnancy may experience constipation. Increased fiber intake is recommended. Saturated fats are to be eaten only in moderation. Milk products are important during the entire pregnancy.
The nurse is providing education to a client concerning calcium intake. During the discussion the nurse addresses a potential health concern related to inadequate calcium intake. Which condition is most impacted by inadequate calcium intake?
Osteoporosis.. Osteoporosis is a condition in which there is a reduction in bone density. Factors contributing to the development of osteoporosis may include chronically insufficient calcium intake, decreased estrogens, heredity factors, smoking, race, and decreased physical activity.
Assessment of a client with a nutritional deficiency reveals poor wound healing and bleeding gums. The nurse would suspect a deficiency of:
vitamin C... Poor wound healing and bleeding gums suggest a vitamin C deficiency. Muscle wasting and thin, lusterless hair that breaks easily would suggest a protein deficiency. Excessive bruising and bleeding would suggest a vitamin K deficiency. Skeletal changes such as painful joints, poor posture, and an increase in bone fractures would suggest a calcium deficiency.
Which would indicate to the nurse that a client is at nutritional risk?
ingests 4 servings of beer per day.. Indicators placing a client at nutritional risk include the use of three or more drinks of beer, liquor, or wine almost every day; is not physically able to shop, cook and/or feed self; takes three or more prescription or over-the-counter medications each day; and has gained or lost 10 lb (4.50 kg) in the last 6 months without wanting to.
During a nutritional assessment, a client asks the nurse for suggestions to improve their diet. The nurse identifies a nursing diagnosis of health-seeking behaviors related to desire to improve diet. Which suggestion would be appropriate?
“Choose low-fat versions of milk products such as yogurt”.. A healthy diet should include low-fat or fat-free milk, yogurt, and other milk products. Approximately one-half of grain intake should be whole grain. The client should be encouraged to go easy on fruit juices, opting instead for a variety of fruits including fresh, frozen, canned, or dried fruits. A client also should vary vegetable intake but eat more dark-green and orange vegetables.
A client with second-degree burns is encouraged to increase the proteins in his diet. Which food is high in protein?
Scrambled eggs with cheese.. Scrambled eggs with cheese is a food choice high in protein content. The other choices are reflective of high carbohydrate content.
A client has developed dysphagia secondary to a cerebrovascular accident. The nurse is aware that the client is at risk for:
aspiration. The definition of dysphagia is difficulty swallowing. This would place the client at risk for aspirating liquids. Gastritis, incontinence, and confusion can be issues but will not develop due to dysphagia.
A nurse is caring for an adult client who ate a chicken breast and drank a glass of water. There are 60 grams of protein in the chicken breast. Calculate the energy intake, in kilocalories, for this food. Record your answer using a whole number.
240. To calculate total energy intake for a protein, multiply the total grams of the protein and multiply it times 4 kilocalories.
The nurse is providing teaching for a postoperative client complaining of nausea. Which food would be the most appropriate to recommend?
saltine crackers.. The dry crackers are best to help control the nausea. The other foods are too heavy and may increase nausea.
A nurse is assessing a 70-year-old client with a reduced appetite. Which condition contributes to reduced appetite and reduced nutritional intake in older adults?
adverse medication effects.. Medical conditions and adverse medication affect the appetite of older adults. However, heart disease and arthritis are not medical conditions that are likely to have a pronounced effect on appetite. Older adults do not normally lack digestive enzymes.
A 56-year-old woman with a diagnosis of breast cancer is receiving chemotherapy and has been experiencing debilitating nausea throughout the course of treatment. What nursing diagnosis should the nurse assign to this client’s health problem?
Imbalanced Nutrition: Less Than Body Requirements.. Protracted nausea usually results in decreased food intake and consequent malnutrition. Nausea does not directly result in difficulty with the mechanics of swallowing, self-care deficit, or aspiration.
After a teaching session regarding dietary choices of carbohydrates, which client choices indicate correct understanding of the information for limiting carbohydrates? (Select all that apply.)
rice, lean red meat, corn on the cob, apple. Sources of carbohydrates include cereals and grains such as rice, wheat and wheat germ, oats, barley, corn, and corn meal; fruits and vegetables; and sweeteners. Lean red meat is a protein source versus a carbohydrate.
The nurse is teaching a client who wishes to try a vegetarian diet about different types of proteins that can be eaten. Which food will the nurse identify that contain appropriate dietary protein? (Select all that apply.)
beans, nuts, eggs, tofu.. Dietary proteins are obtained from animal and plant food sources, which include milk, meat, fish, poultry, eggs, soy, legumes (peas, beans, and peanuts), nuts, and components of grains. For the client who wishes to try a vegetarian diet, the nurse will recommend beans, nuts, eggs, and tofu. Carrots do not contain protein.
A client with headaches has been told by the healthcare provider to increase intake of dietary magnesium. Which food will the nurse teach the client to consume?
whole grains.. Whole grains, milk, and meat (not seafood) are high in magnesium. Egg yolks, salmon, and potatoes are not.
Which nursing student statement regarding vegetarian diets requires further teaching from the nursing instructor?
“According to research, vegetarians have a higher incidence of obesity than others.”.. Vegetarians have a lower incidence of colorectal cancer and fewer problems with obesity and diseases associated with a high-fat diet. Protein complementation helps a client get amino acids needed. Vegans rely solely on plant sources for protein; semi-vegetarians exclude only red meat from their diet.
The healthcare provider has asked the nurse to teach a client with anemia about increasing iron in the diet. Which foods will the nurse teach the client that are high in iron? (Select all that apply.)
liver, egg yolks, tofu, spinach.. Liver, egg yolks, tofu, and spinach are high in iron. Processed meats contain excess sodium, and bananas contain high amounts of potassium.
A client who is vegetarian talks with the nurse about eating complementary proteins. Which combination of foods will the nurse identify that complement each other?
navy beans and whole wheat bread... Legumes generally complement grains, breads, and cereals. Cashews and peanuts are in the same protein category. Milk and peas are not complementary, nor are seeds and milk products.
After reviewing the client's chart, the nurse notes that the client has been ordered a clear liquid diet. Which meal tray would the client be allowed to eat?
Bouillon, apple juice, and gelatin ..Clear liquid diets contain foods that are clear liquids at room temperature or body temperature, such as gelatin, fat-free broth, bouillon, ice pops, clear juices, carbonated beverages, regular and decaffeinated coffee, and tea. Full liquid diets contain all the items on a clear liquid diet, but also include milk and milk drinks, custards, puddings, plain frozen desserts, pasteurized eggs, cereal gruels, vegetable juices, and milk and egg substitutes.
A woman age 20 years has announced her intention to implement a zero-fat diet in order to lose weight and maximize her health. What is a potential consequence of completely eliminating fat sources from the woman's diet?
impaired vitamin absorption ..In addition to providing caloric needs, fats are necessary for the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. It would be inadvisable to wholly eliminate fats from the diet in an effort to limit calorie intake. Fat does not directly contribute to tissue growth, water absorption in the bowel, or antibody production.
What information do anthropometric measurements provide in adults?
indirect measure of protein and fat stores.. Anthropometric measurements are used to determine body dimensions. In children, they are used to assess growth rate; in adults, they give indirect measurements of body protein and fat stores.
The physician has asked the nurse to prepare a list of laboratory tests needed to assess an obese client's daily fat intake. Which test would the nurse include on the list?
The cholesterol test along with triglyceride and lipoprotein levels needs to be conducted to adjust the amount of fats an obese client consumes. Complete blood count, serum albumin, and transferrin level tests will not help in estimating the amount of fat the client eats. The complete blood count is done especially for the hemoglobin, hematocrit, and number of lymphocytes. The serum albumin and transferrin level tests indicate the protein status in the body.
The nurse is reviewing a client's understanding of dietary choices that will help reduce high triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Which statement by the client indicates an understanding of the best options to be included in the diet?
"I plan to use more sunflower oil in my diet selections.".. Coconut oil, palm oil, and palm kernel oil are highly saturated fats.
The nurse is educating a group of adolescent girls on bone and teeth growth. Which fat-soluble vitamin assists to build bone and teeth?
Vitamin A..Vitamin A is important for the promotion of normal skeletal and tooth development.
Which vitamin is found only in animal foods?
Vitamin B12.. Vitamin B12 functions in the formation of mature red blood cells and in synthesis of DNA and RNA. This vitamin is only found in animal foods (meats, fish, poultry, milk, and eggs).
The nurse is caring for a client who has dysphagia and is unable to eat independently. The nurse is preparing to assist the client in eating a meal. Which action is appropriate?
Speak to the client but limit the need for the client to respond verbally while chewing and swallowing.. Clients who have dysphagia need to eat slowly and be continually observed for signs of aspiration.
A nurse is caring for a client who had an appendectomy earlier in the day. The client now has bowel sounds and is passing flatus. Which food is appropriate for the nurse to serve to the client at this time?
Apple juice.. A postoperative client whose bowel sounds return and is passing flatus is ready to begin a diet. The first diet offered is a clear liquid diet. Apple juice is a clear liquid because it can be seen through. Sherbet and Ensure would belong on a full liquid diet. Chopped fruit is a mechanically altered diet and is typically used when a client has chewing or swallowing difficulty.Reference:
A nurse is teaching a client about diabetes and glucose monitoring. What should the nurse include in the teaching?
Blood from the fingertips shows changes in glucose more quickly than other testing sites... With glucose monitoring, blood from the fingertips shows changes in blood glucose more quickly than other testing sites. With signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia, a fingertip site should be used. Calibrate the glucose monitors at least every month. Glucose levels increase with illness and stress to the body.
A nurse is caring for a client who is receiving total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Which action should the nurse perform with TPN?
Discard unused TPN every 24 hours... With TPN, any unused portion should be discarded every 24 hours. Vital signs with TPN should be checked every 4 hours. Blood glucose should be checked every 6 hours. If the client has a transparent dressing on the central venous access, it can be changed weekly.
A 28-year-old woman client is in an outpatient clinic with frequent reports of fatigue. Her physician has prescribed her ferrous sulfate 325 mg to treat iron-deficiency anemia. A nurse is teaching the client about medication administration. What food would be best consumed with her ferrous sulfate?
a glass of orange juice.. Concurrent administration of vitamin C and iron helps with iron absorption. Orange juice is a common and inexpensive dietary source of vitamin C.
The nurse is teaching a community group about reading food labels. When teaching about avoidance of refined sugar, the nurse will teach people to avoid foods containing which ingredients?
molasses, corn syrup, corn sweetener, brown sugar. Molasses, corn syrup and corn sweetener, and brown sugar are refined sugars. Honey is a naturally occurring sugar. Therefore, clients do not have to avoid honey.
A nurse is establishing an ideal body weight for a 5'9" (175 cm) healthy female. Based on the rule-of-thumb method, what would be this client's ideal weight?
145 lb/ 65.7 kg.. A general guideline, often called the rule-of-thumb method, determines ideal weight based on height. This formula is as follows: For adult females: 100 lb/45.3 kg (for height of 5 feet or 152 cm) + 5 lb / 2.2 kg for each additional inch (2.5 cm) over 5 feet. For adult males: 106 lb / 48 kg (for height of 5 feet) + 6 lb / 2.7 kg for each additional inch over 5 feet.
A woman is reporting cracking fissures in the corner of her mouth. Which instruction should the nurse include in the information provided to the client?
Increase intake of eggs and milk... The client has presented with symptoms consistent with cheilosis. This may be the result of a Vitamin B2 deficiency. Good sources of this vitamin include milk and eggs.
A female client tells the nurse, “I try to consume 2000 calories daily by eating a variety of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.” What is the appropriate nursing response?
“That is a healthy amount of daily caloric intake.”.. Healthy adult women on average require 1800 to 2400 cal/day, with a mix of proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. The nurse should affirm the client’s dietary choices. Other answers are incorrect and do not counsel the client appropriately.