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58 Cards in this Set

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Cooking with apples
Cooking
Typically more tart than sweet
Crispier texture
Less juicy
Retains shape when cooked
Good for cooking because sugar balances sour or tart
Eating apples
Tend to be softer to the bite
Often juicier
Sweeter/higher in sugar
Softens as it ripens
Not used for cooking; cells rupture easily, although good for making applesauce
More eating apples than cooking apples on the market
EX: Red Delicious, Jonathans, Washington Reds…

Most apples on the market now are hybrids that balance out the best of both cooking and eating apples
Sugar/water concentrations of fruit - Osmosis
Water (solvent) travels from a low solute concentration to a high solute concentration
Diffusion
When particles (solute) move from an area of high concentration to low concentration, acheiving an equilibrium
Oxidative enzymatic browning
Three things come together:
1. Phenolic compounds (tannins)
2. Enzymes (polyphenol oxidases)
3. Oxygen
How can you prevent oxidative enzymatic browning?
Add acid
Coat with sugar, water, or syrup
Antioxidants (e.g. ascorbic acid, sulfur)
Blanching
Cold temperatures, but sealed
Vacuum packing
What does it mean if a fruit is botanical?
ripened enlarged ovaries and parts of a plant’s flowers
What does it mean if a fruit is culinary?
plant fruits that are sweet and fleshy. Some “fruits” are actually vegetables, and vise versa.
How are fruits classified?
Fruits are classified according to the origin - type and/or part of flower
Simple
Aggregate
Multiple
What does it mean if a fruit is simple? What is an example of a simple fruit?
From one ovary (flower)
Fleshy body

Grapes
Tomatoes
Bananas
Citrus fruits-thick fleshy skin, sections
Melons
Pumpkins
What is an aggregate fruit? What are some examples of aggregate fruits?
Several ovaries from one flower

Strawberries
Blackberries
Raspberries
What is a multiple fruit? What are some examples of multiple fruits?
Cluster of several flowers that merge together as they mature

Pineapple
Figs
Breadfruit
What are some fruits that are commonly eaten as vegetables?
Tomatoes
Squash
Cucumbers
Walnuts
Almonds
Avocaods
Bell Peppers
What is the compostition of a fruit?
Ovary(ies) of flower grows and thickens into three layers:
Exocarp – outer epidermis
Mesocarp-middle layer, varies in thickness
Endocarp-the rest
All three layers make up the pericarp which surrounds the seeds
What is a drupe?
simple fleshy fruit
have a fleshy or soft exocarp, a fleshy mesocarp, and a stony endocarp.
plums, peaches, cherry, coconut
What is a pome?
simple fleshy fruit
center core with seeds, fleshy body
rigid plant walls are ______
water soluble
walls are made of ____________ and _______
cellulose and hemicellulose
chloroplasts contain _________________
chlorophyll, carotenoids, fats
what do chromoplasts contain?
carotenoids
what color are leukoplasts?
colorless
what are vacuoles?
air pockets with sap cells containing anthocyanins, anthoxanthins, sugars, organic acids, vitamins
what sugars are present in fruits?
fructose
glucose
sucrose
what organic acids are found in fruits
Citric (limes, lemons)
Malic (apples, pears, peaches)
Oxalic (rhubarb)
Tartaric (grapes)
Benzoic (cranberries)
where are organic acids found
cell sap
what do organic acids do for fruit
distinct flavors and odors
what pectic substances are present in fruit
Protopectin, pectin, pectic acid
“Pectins” – gel-like cement between cell walls
what does pectin do for fruit
structure and firmness

manufacturing for jellies and gels
when is protopectin
not yet ripened, insoluble
when is pectin present in fruit
fruit is optimally ripened
pectin is water soluble
enzymes in fruit break down pectin to increase softness
when is pectic acid present in fruit
over ripened fruit, becomes mushy
chemical bonds are broken
how does fruit ripen on a chemical level
Starch converts to sugar
Pectic substances degrade
Vitamins may increase or decrease
Protein, fat, minerals stay relatively the same
Color intensifies as chlorophyll degrades
Aroma increases, acidity decreases
Lowered temperatures delays ripening
What is ethylene gas
naturally prroduced and emitted to hasten ripening
fruits can be exposed to ethylene gas in transport
Some fruits have higher levels than others
Capturing ethylene gas can help other fruits ripen more quickly
how is fresh fruit rated
USDA grading (voluntary)
U.S. Fancy, #1, #2, #3 (decreases in quality and price as number gets higher, not indicative of nutritional value)
Graded according to:
Size
Shape
Color
Texture
Absence of defects
Grades A, B, & C
Grade A is best
Nutritional value is not deminished
Use lower grades when “looks don’t count”
what should one look for when purchasing fruit
Mature & ripe
Good color
Low bruises/decay
Unbroken skin
In season
Largest is not always best
Good aroma
No evidence of bug infestation
If you bite into it and see half a worm, throw it out
what kind of pigments can fruit have
Carotenoids
Chlorophyll
Flavonoids
Anthocyanin
Anthoxanthin
Others (less common)
Phytochemicals
carotenoids
Not water soluble
Heat stable
Yellow-orange/red
Vitamin A (beta-carotene)
Peaches, apricots, mangoes, papayas, nectarines
Carotene (yellow-orange)
Lycopene (red-orange)
Xanthophyll (yellow)
chlorophyll
Water soluble
Not heat stable
Chlorophyll a = blue/green, very unstable in heat
Chlorophyll b = olive green, more stable
Alkali substances will brighten color
flavonoids
Anthocyanin, anthoxanthin, betalains
Anthocyanin – blue, red, violet
In acid: red
Neutral: purple
Base: blue
anthoxanthin
White to colorless, creamy colors
In acid: more white
Base: more yellow
betalains
Beets
Swiss chard
classification of vegetables
Bulb-enlargement above roots
Root-single enlarged taproots
Tuber-fat underground stems
All are high in carbohydrate, low in water
what kinds of vegetables of are low in carbohydrates and high in water
Leaves - greens
Stems/stalks – high in cellulose fiber (artichokes, celery, asparagus)
Fruits (cucumbers, tomatoes, bell peppers, eggplant, avocados)
Seeds
Pods
what vegetables are high in protein and high in starch
corn
legumes
orka (botanically is a fruit)
nutrient value of vegetables
Low in calories
Usually <50 kcal per ½ cup serving
Starchy: higher in kcals: 100 kcal per ½ serving
All food nutrients are present, especially minerals and vitamins
nutritive value is dependent upon:
Part of plant, climate, soil conditions
Hydroponic (no soil)
Organic
Method of cooking
Amount of heat, water, time
hydroponic farming
farming that uses much less water
what presence does calcium have in vegetables?
Some plants are high in calcium, but poorly absorbed by humans (oxalic acid), e.g. spinach, turnip greens, asparagus, brussel sprouts
vegetable selection codes
AP = “As Purchased”
EP = “Edible Portion”
AS = “As Served”
W% = “Waste %”
potatoes
two general types, but many, many varieties
Mealy (high amylose starch)
Waxy (high amylopectin starch)
Some in between (Yukon Gold)
All potatoes have both starches
how does amylose affect potatoes
more amylose, mealy
straight chained glucose molecule
Best for baking, frying
Light and fluffy
Higher starch content
Low in water content
Less moisture
mealy potatoes are best for:
baked potatoes, french fries, fluffy mashed potatoes, hash browns
does not hold shape well if cut and cooked
typically white potatoes
amylopectin makes potatoes more
waxy
(branched chained glucose molecule)
what are waxy potatoes used for
Best for dishes that hold their shape
Better structure when cooked
Dense, compact, sticky
Higher in moisture
Lower in starch, higher in sugar
Does not fry well due to sugar
Best for:
Potato salad, scalloped potatoes, boiled, creamy mashed potatoes
Typically red potatoes
How do you keep potatoes safe to eat
Cooked potato dishes, especially those with cream, butter or custard, are potentially hazardous foods. They must be held for service at 140°F or higher. Be sure to reheat potato dishes to 165°F or higher.
Stored in the dark, as light promotes chlorophyll production = green and bitter
Green patches = solanine, a toxin harmful if eaten in large amounts
Do not wash until ready for use
what pigments take place in vegetables
Pigment information from fruits apply to vegetables:
Chlorophyll
Flavonoids (anthocyanin, anthoxanthin)
Carotenoids
Miscellaneous pigments
how are pigments classified
Chlorophylls a & b
A = blue-green
B = green
Carotenoid
Orange-red, yellow-orange
how are flavonoids classified
Flavonoids
Anthocyanin = red-purple, blues
Anthoxanthin = cream/white
Betalains = purple-red