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80 Cards in this Set

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Use "du...au..." when:
describing what one does in general every week
Use "de...à.." when:
describing something that someone is doing one particular week
When describing time, heures:
does not have an "s" for one.

"une heure"
Demi means:

special case:
half when describing time.

when used with une heure it has an 'e'
-une heure et demie
du matin
de l'après-midi
du soir

use these to:
indicate A.M. or P.M.
le matin
l'après-midi
le soir

all mean:
in the morning
in the afternoon
in the evening
Difference between "pardon" and "excuse-moi"
pardon - use to pass through crowd or get someones attention

excuse-moi - use to say sorry
Plus...que
aussi...que
moins..que
more __ than
as __ than
less __ than
conjugate être:
Je suis nous sommes
tu es vous êtes
il est ils sont
4 ways to ask questions:
1) rising intonation
2) est-ce que
3) add n'est-ce pas (isn't that right) or non? at the end of the sentence
4) Inversion (invert subj. pronoun + verb
difference between universitaire and université
universitaire is an adjective and must be paired with a noun it's describing

université - is a noun
L'article indéfini (un, une, des) change to de (d') when?
-after most negated verbs (not être)
-after quantity expressions
-directly before a plural adjective
Use c'est or ce sont to:
identify and describe using nouns
ex: c'est David. C'est un ami français.
Use il est and ils sont when:
-using adjective to describe
-with preposition phrases (from, in)
-with nationalities, professions, and religions when they don't have the indefinite article.
Most descriptive adjectives are placed after the noun they describe but which aren't?
B- beau, joli
A- jeune, vieux, nouveau
G- bon, mauvais, gentil
S- grand, petit, gros
also: autre, même, seul
Use definite article (le, la l', les) to:
-specify items (like using 'the' )
-say what you like, dislike, prefer
-talk about something as a category
To talk about sports:
-use "jouer au" for sports that you "play" (also for musical instruments use jouer de/du/de la
-for sports you do use faire de/du/de la
(presque) toujours
(almost) always
for -er verbs other than aller:
endings are:
-e -ons
-es -ez
-e -ent
how well, how often words are often placed:
directly after the conjugated verb

-quelquefois/d'habitude at end/beg.
-comme ci comme ça at end
How do you tell if a verb has a stem change
if the next to last syllable is a 'e' or 'é' then that letter changes to è in all forms but nous and vous
What changes the conjugation of a verb?
ending in -ger and -cer
-if it ends in -ger the nous form changes to a -eons
-if it ends in -cer, in the nous form the c becomes a ç
What does tout mean? and where is it placed? What are the different forms?
"whole or all" before sing. nouns
"all or every" before plural nouns
-placed before a nouns article
tout/toute
tous/toutes
Qui est-ce? =
Who is that?
Qu'est-ce que c'est? =
What is that?
Inversion rules
Invert subj. pronoun and verb
-don't use inversion + est-ce que together
-don't use inversion with je
-when the verb ends in vowel and subj. is il/elle place -t- between
-il y a ==> y a-t-il
-c'est ==> est-ce
-put question words before inverted verb
Avoir conjugation:
j'ai nous avons
tu as vous avez
il a ils ont
sur
on
sous
under
entre
between
dans
in
devant
in front of
derrière
behind
près
near
loin (de)
far (from)
à côté (de)
next to
à droite
to the right
à gauche
to the left
en face
facing
dans le coin
in the corner
de and definite articles (le, la, l', les) combine when and how?
de + le ==> du
de + les ==> des
my:
your:
his/her:
our:
your(formal):
their:
mon ma mon mes
ton ta ton tes
son sa son ses
notre notre notre nos
votre votre votre vos
leur leur leur leurs
how do you show possession in french?
use de where in english you'd use 's
how do you say which or what before a noun?
quel // quels
quelle // quelles
to point something out using this/these or that/those:
use ce:
ce - masc sing
cet- masc sing + vowel sound
cette - feminine sing.
ces -> all the plurals
conjugation of aller:
je vais nous allons
tu vas vous allez
il va ils vont
à makes contractions when?
à + le ==> au
à + les ==> aux
y is what? where does it go?
pronoun, avoids repetition
-comes immediately before the verb.
*if there is an infinitive before that, otherwise the conjugated verb
On is what? what is it used for?
subject when referring to people in general (one, people)
-can take the place of nous
-conjugated with il/elle form
-used to propose doing something (shall we, or how about?)
Imperitive command form is used for what?
-to make suggestions with (let's)
-to give instructions or tell someone to do something
How do you make a suggestion in the imperitive?
use the nous for of verb without the pronoun, nous.
Ex: Allons au cinéma - Let's go to the movies
How do you command something using the imperitive?
use either tu or vous form without the pronoun
* in tu form commands drop the final s of -er type verbs
What are the imperitive conjugations for être?
Sois ----Be
Soyons-Let's be
Soyez--Be
What are the imperitive conjugations for avoir?
Aie------Have
Ayons--Let's have
Ayez---Have
Difference between quitter and partir
-quitter must be followed by a direct object
-partir means leave in a sense of depart
Difference between visiter and aller voir
-use visiter to talk about a place
-use aller voir to talk about visiting a person
There is going to be//there are going to be:
Il va y avoir
How do you say dates in french?
le + cardinal number( deux, trois) + mois
*for the 1st use premier
Difference between Un bus and un car
un bus goes within cities
un car goes between cities
conjugate prendre:

what verbs are just like it?
je prends nous prenons
tu prends vous prenez
il prend ils prennent

Compredre(to understand) and Apprendre( to learn)
conjugate venir:

what verbs are just like venir?
je viens nous venons
tu viens vous venez
il vient ils viennent

Revenir (to come back) devenir (to become)
When talking about transportation use prendre to say:
and use aller, venir, voyager to say:
-you are taking a certain means of transportation
-you are going by, coming by, traveling by a particular means of transportation

*on foot -- à pièd
How do you talk about what you did?
use two verbs: auxiliary(conjugated) and a past participle
what are past participles?
for all er's the PP ends in -é
for ir's it is usually -i
what are some irregular past participles?
Avoir--> eu
boire--> bu
lire --> lu
voir --> vu
être --> été
faire --> fait
écrire --> écrit
prendre --> pris
In the past tense where do you place words describing how often and how well?
in between the aux. and the PP

ne...pas goes around the aux.
How do you talk about where you went?
use two verbs the auxiliary and the PP but this time use être for the aux.

** in this case the PP must agree in number and gender of the subject**
What are some of the verbs that use être?
Aller, venir(other forms), arriver, rester, entrer, sortir, partir, retourner, rentre, monter, descendre, tomber, naître, mourir
Where do time expressions go in the past tense?
They usually go at beginning or end of the clause, but
*déjà is placed between the aux & PP
*ne...pas encore goes around aux.
conjugate faire:
je fais nous faisons
tu fais vous faites
il fait ils font
what does ne...rien mean?
did not do anything
to negate an infinitive...
place both parts of the negative expression (ne...pas) before it
Pleuvoir
Neiger
to rain ---PP is plu (la pluie)
to snow --PP is neigé (la neige)
To describe today's weather:
Il fait beau...
du vent

Il pleut/neige
To describe tomorrows weather:
Il va faire beau
du vent

Il va pleuvoir/neiger.
To describe yesterday's weather:
Il a fait beau
du vent

il a plu/neigé
conjugate mettre:
mettre (to wear)
je mets nous mettons
tu mets vous mettez
il met ils mettent
PP: mis
Le, la, l' , and les (direct object pronouns) are used to avoid repetition.

like y they are placed:
immediately before the verb (infinitive if there is one)
in the passe compose direct object pronouns and y are placed:
directly before the aux. or conjugated verb
The PP used with Avoir agrees when?
when the direct object of the verb precedes the verb (this happens when you use a direct object pronoun)