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32 Cards in this Set

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Forensic anthropology definition
the field of study that deals with the analysis if human skeletal remains resulting from unexplained deaths.
Forensic anthropology objectives
1. determine ancestry
2. identify the nature of the traumas and their causative agent - gather info pertaining to the cause of death.
3. time since death
4. gather all remains so able to use in an investigation/ court
5. provide info in order to help identify person
Formative period
early 1800s-1938
Paul broca, dr. ruxton, parkman webster, thomas dwight, george dorsey, hrdlicka, hamann, todd, terry
Paul Brocca
physician interested in human variation esp. skeletons. Lab in Paris became school- father of physical anthropology
Dr. Ruxton
Great Britain physician who killed his wife and maid, convicted from pictures matched with bone.
Parkman- Webster
Parkman wealthy, lent money to webster. Webster killed Parkman. Oliver Holmes and Jeffries Wyman investigated. Built case against webster with extra pieces of bone and dentures they found in lab and furnace that didn't belong with collections.
Thomas Dwight
"Father of Forensic anthropology" 1st person to research on human to determine age( from closure of joints between of the skull), sex (from the sternum) and height (without using bones of the arms and legs)
- He also trained students.
Leutgert Sausage Murder- 1897
Only 4 small pieces of bone and a ring belonging to the wife were used. George Dorsey, trained by Dwight, proved that bones were human remains were the wife's. Dorsey never consulted on criminal case again.
Ales Hrdlicka
hired at smithsonian, founder of physical anthropology. Founded American Association of Physical Anthropology (AAPA)
-American Journal of Physical Antropology (AJPA)
- worked in secret with FBI and this continues at smithsonian today.
anthropometry- measure of human bodies
Carl August Hamman
Ohio Case Western Reserve Med School, established bone collection from cadavers at the school
T. wingate Todd
successor who continued Hamman's research, eventually collected over 3300 bones now known as the Hamman-Todd collection.
Terry Collection
Robert Terry, Washington University, followed by Mildred Trotter collected over 1600 remains from known age, sex and ancestry. This collection is now at smithsonian.
Consolidation Period
1939- 1971
Wilton Marion Krogman
Wrote "guide to the identification of human skeletal material" in 1939. which is considered to end the formative period, for the FBI.
Published textbook in forensic anthropology.
CIL- Central Identification Laboratory
Came about during war. Trying to determine identification of military personnel. Charles Snow first director. MIldred Trotter took over and worked on better ways to determine stature from the length of bones. Her formulas are still used today. this was located in southeast asia then moved to Hawaii and is now known as JPAC (Joint POW accounting command)
T. Dale Stewart and Thomas McKern
came up with development of age standards.
Modern Period
1972 to present, considered to have begun when the Physical Anthropology Section in the American Academy of Forensic Sciences met for the first time.
Ellis Kerley
lobbied to get an anthropology section in the AAFS.
William Bass
trained about 1/2 anthropologist. most of career University Tennessee. Started a bone collection. Individuals from the body farm. Most recent update collection.
Clyde snow and human rights
asked in late 70s by argentina to investigate missing people from old government. this began the EAAF (equipo argentina de anthropology forensic)- students trained by snow to investigate human rights.
disaster mortuary operational response team. used to be FEMA but now separate after Katrina. Now in HHS (health and human services)
forensic anthropology
deals with the identification of persons from their skeletons.
forensic archaeology
use archaeological methods to locate and retrieve human skeletal material while following the rules of evidence established by law enforcement agencies.
forensic odontologists
dentists who specialize in identifying person from their dentition
study of firearms
forensic entomology
study of insects on human remains
forensic botany
study of plants in relation to the crime scenes.
Frye v. Us
1923 case, from this case the expert testimony can be admitted if the principles upon which it is based are generally accepted by other professionals in the field of study.
Federal Rules of Evidence- passed in 1975 as a means to secure fairness in administration, elimination of unjustifiable expense and delay, and promotion of growth and development of the law of evidence to the end that the truth may be ascertained and proceedings justly determined.
this case help to establish 5 guidelines to be considered by the court:
1. the theory or technique can be and has been tested
2. It has been subjected to peer review and publication
3. It has a known or potential error rate.
4. It has standards controlling its operation
5. It has attracted widespread acceptance within a relevant scientific community.
General Electric
Joiner sued GE saying that chemicals used by them caused small cell lung cancer. court didn't allow testimony. stating not enough link. supreme court upheld judges ruling as "gatekeeper"
Kumho Tire Co.
supreme court ruled that lower court was correct holding testimony to Daubert standards. and re-emphasized the role of trial judge as gatekeeper.