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60 Cards in this Set

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foodborne illness outbreaks 1990-2003
other - 40%
seafood - 20%
produce - 12%
poultry - 11%
beef - 10%
eggs - 7%
marine toxins
-naturally occuring chemicals that contaminate certain seafood
-seafood contaminated with these chemicals usually looks, smells and tastes normal
-disease can result if humans consume contaminated seafood
disease caused by marine toxins (in order of incidence in the US)
-scombrotoxic fish poisoning
-ciguatera fish poisoning
-paralytic shellfish poisoning
-neurotoxic shellfish poisoning
-amnesic shellfish poisoning
marine toxins that have occured in florida:
-Methyl Mercury poisoning ***
-Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning ***
-Ciguatera fish poisoning ***
-Scombrotoxic fish poisoning ***
another name for scombrotoxic fish poisoning
scombroid or histamine fish poisoning
scombrotoxic fish poisoning (SFP)
-caused by bacterial spoilage of certain finish (tuna, mackerel, and bonito)
-these fish contain relatively large amounts of histidine in their muscles which cause disease
-rarely occurs in other fish
-results from improper handling of fish (time/temp abuse)
-bacteria within the fish convert histidine into histamine
-cooking, canning or freezing does not reduce the toxic effect
tuna, mackerel and bonito belong to...
Scombridae family of fish
what enzyme catalyzes this rxn: histidine ---> histamine
decarboxylase
Scombrotoxic fish poisoning symptoms
-start 2 mins to 2 hours after eating the fish
-usually last a few hours
-common symptoms: rash, diarrhea, flushing, sweating, headache, vomiting, burning/tingling or swelling of mouth, ab pain, or metallic taste
Scombrotoxic fish poisoning symptoms may be more severe in:
patients taking certain medications that retard the breakdown of histamine by their liver (ex. isoniazide and doxycycline)
Scombrotoxic fish poisoning treatment
-not necessary
-in certain cases: antihistamines or epinephrines may be required
How to reduce Scombrotoxic fish poisoning
-rapidly chilling catch to prevent histamine formation
-bleeding and gutting the fish can assist rapid cooling
-if done carefully, gutting can remove source of bacteria
Ciguatera is
a form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of subtropical and tropical marine finfish which have accumulated naturally occurring toxins (ciguatoxin) through their diet
Ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP)
-Ciguatoxin is produced by microscopic sea plants called dinoflagellates
-Ex. Gambierdiscus toxicus
-As many as 50,000 cases are reported globally annually
Foods associated with ciguatera poisoning
-Groupers, barracudas, snappers, jacks, mackerel, and triggerfish
-These toxins become progressively concentrated as they move up the food chain from small fish to large predatory fish that eat them
Nature of CFP disease
-Ciguatera poisoning is usually self-limiting (subside within several days from onset)
-Poisoning occur within 6 hours after eating toxic fish
CFP symptoms
-Symptoms include a combination of gastrointestinal, neurological, and cardiovascular disorders
-In some cases neurological symptoms persist from weeks to months and even years
How to prevent ciguatera poisoning
-Consume less coral reef fish
-Avoid eating the head, viscera, skin, and roe of coral reef fish which usually have higher concentration of toxin
-when eating coral reef fish, avoid consuming alcohol, peanuts or beans as they may aggravate ciguatera poisoning.
Paralytic Shellfish Poisoning (PSP) is:
-Caused by a different dinoflagellate with a different toxin
-These dinoflagellates have a red-brown color, and can grow to such numbers that they cause red streaks (red tides) to appear in the ocean
PSP toxins:
-This toxin is known to concentrate within certain shellfish that typically live in the colder coastal waters of the Pacific states and New England
-20 toxins responsible for paralytic shellfish poisonings (PSP) and are all derivatives of saxitoxin
PSP associated foods
Mussels, cockles, clams, scallops, oysters, crabs, and lobsters
PSP onset
-Symptoms begin anywhere from 15 minutes to 10 hours after eating the contaminated shellfish, although usually within 2 hours
PSP symptoms
-numbness or tingling of the face, arms, and legs which is followed by headache, dizziness, nausea, and muscular incoordination
PSP complications
-muscle paralysis and respiratory failure which may cause death in 2 to 25 hours if respiratory support is not provided
How to prevent PSP
-Harvesters of shellfish should check with authorities concerning the harvesting status of the beds. Should only harvest from officially open and regulated beds.
-Call the Biotoxin Hotline at 1-800-562-5632
-Individuals should not buy or accept shellfish from unlicensed vendors or friends when they are not certain of the area of harvesting or on-going monitoring results
Neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP) is caused by:
Caused by a third type of dinoflagellate that produces another toxin (brevetoxins)
brevetoxins are:
a group of 10 natural neurotoxins produced by the marine dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis
Karenia brevis is
naturally occurring in the Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean Sea and along New Zealand coasts
NSP toxin regularly produces blooms along which coasts?
Florida and Texas (known as the Florida Red Tide)
K. brevis name after
biologist Karen Steidinger FL FWC scientist(retired)
K. brevis was in which newspaper and when?
Tampa Times article
2006
NSP/K. brevis associated foods:
Shellfish (such as clams, oysters, whelks, mussels, conch, coquinas, and other filter-feeding mollusks)
NSP disease onset
Symptoms begin 1 to 3 hours after eating the contaminated shellfish
NSP symptoms
-Symptoms include numbness, tingling in the mouth, arms and legs, incoordination, and gastrointestinal upset
-Symptoms usually last for 2 to 3 days
-Death is rare
Amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) history
-an event occurred in Canada in 1987 where 150 people felt sick after eating mussels contaminated with an unknown toxin
-19 hospitalizations, and 4 deaths (elderly)
-symptoms observed in many of the sick included memory loss
ASP chemical toxin is
domoic acid
domoic acid is
an amino acid produced by some species of phytoplankton
how does domoic acid affect fish/humans?
domoic acid gets bio-concentrated by shellfish and enters the human food chain when shellfish is consumed by human
ASP associated foods
Cockles, crabs, furrow shell, mussels, razor clams and scallops
onset of ASP disease
occurs 24 hrs after eating contaminated shellfish
ASP symptoms
gastrointestinal upset, dizziness, headache, disorientation, and permanent short-term memory loss
complications
seizures, focal weakness or paralysis, and may result in death
Mercury
mineral that exists naturally in the environment
mercury in the air
Thousands of tons are released into the air each year through pollution and waste
where does mercury bioaccumulate and what happens?
-streams and oceans
-it is converted into the poisonous organic compound methylmercury (MeHg) through bacteria action
mercury and fish?
fish absorb and accumulate MeHg as they feed in these waters
levels of MeHg in fish depending on size:
Levels of MeHg tend to be higher in larger predatory fish such as shark and swordfish that feed on smaller fishes in these waters
Who's at risk for mercury poisoning?
-every one
according to CDC reports, people more sensitive to mercury are:
-pregnant and nursing
-children under age of six (esp up to age of 3)
-ppl with impaired kidney function
-those with very sensitive immune responses to metal
why are pregnant and nursing women more sensitive to mercury?
-MeHG easily crosses the placenta and accumulates in the blood and tissues of the developing fetus
-it can be passed to newborns through breast milk
mercury poisoning symptoms of toxicity
-Include paraesthesia (a pricking, tingling or creeping sensation on the skin)
-Depression
-Blurred vision
-Prenatal and infant exposure can effect attention span, language, visual-spatial skills, memory, and coordination
The national academy of sciences:
estimates nearly 60,000 children each year are born at risk for neurological problems due to methylmercury exposure in the womb
When did the FDA/EPA revise their consumery advisory for mercury?
2012
FDA/EPA recommends to not eat:
Shark, Swordfish, King Mackerel, or Tilefish because they contain high levels of mercury.
what are five common fish that are ow in mercury?
shrimp, canned light tuna, salmon, pollock, and catfish.
common;y eaten fish high in mercury
albacore (white) tuna which has more mercury than canned light tuna
how many ounces of fish are you allowed to eat a week?
12 ounce (2 average meals)
any restrictions on locally caught fish?
only eat 6oz a week, don't eat any other fish that same week and check local advisories about the safety of fish in the area
Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are:
mixtures of synthetic and organic toxic chemicals developed and used as fire retardants, insulators, and plasticizers in electrical devises mostly
In 1976, Congress passed the Toxic Substances Control Act (TSCA), which banned:
the production of PCBs because of troubling health effects discovered in workers that come in contact with PCB