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14 Cards in this Set

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Compare and contrast the terms critical period and sensitive period, and discuss how observations of imprinting led to the development of these concepts.
The term critical period refers to a limited time span during which the child is biologically prepared to acquire certain adaptive behaviors but needs the support of an appropriately stimulating environment. A sensitive period refers to a time that is optimal for certain capacities to emerge because the individual is especially responsive to environment. The idea of a sensitive period offers a better account of human development than does the strict notion of a critical period. Development may occur later, but it is harder to induce.
What are the five levels of environment according to Urie Bronfenbrenner? Provide an example of each. How does this influence your understanding of human development?
The microsystem concerns relations between the child and the immediate environment; the mesosystem, connections among immediate settings, the exosystem, social setting that affect but do not contain the child; and the macrosystem, is the values, laws, and customs, and resources of the culture that affects activities and interactions at all inner layers. Chronosystem is not a specific context; it refers to dynamic, ever-changing nature of the child’s environment. Children and their environments form a network of interdependent effects. Each layer is powerfully affected to development, development occurs within a complex system of relationships affected by multiple levels of the environment.
List and describe the signs that indicate that labor is near, noting the time-line.
1. Dilation and effacement of the cervix (6-12 hours) cervix enlarges to 10cm.
2. Delivery of the baby (30mins to 1 hour) baby moves down the birth canal.
3. Delivery of the placenta (10-30mins) placenta is expelled.
Describe the period of the zygote, including the major developments that occur during this period.
Zygote last about (2 weeks) from fertilization until the tiny ass of cells drift down and out of the fallopian tube and attaches itself to the wall of the uterus. Zygotes first cell duplicates, not complete until about 30 hours after conception.
Define and compare the cephalocaudal and proximodistal trends of growth. Provide examples of each.
Cephalocaudal is known as “head to tail” during the prenatal period, head before arms and trunk, which are before legs.
Proximodistal is known as “near to far” from the center of the body outward. In prenatal period, head, chest, and trunk grow first, then the arms and legs, and finally hands and feet.
What is lateralization of the brain, and why does it occur? How does the current research on the exposure to violence affect this?
Lateralization – separation of functions in the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex. Left is in charge of language and positive emotions. Right is in charge of spatial reasoning and negative emotions. If part of cortex is damaged, other parts will take over the tasks it would have handled. Damage means that the abilities its controls cannot be recovered the same extent or as easily as earlier.
Using examples from the text and from guest speaker, explain how cultural variations in infant-rearing practices affect motor development. Provide an example of how you would apply to your profession.
The guest speaker talk about a child who cannot ride a bike at a certain age is a red flag. Cross- cultural research further illustrates how early movement opportunities and a stimulating environment contributes to motor development. A child who is deprived will have trouble later on. A child who wants to peddle needs to learn motor skills such as control their legs.
Describe the similarities and differences between Jean Piaget's cognitive-developmental theory and Lev Vygotsky's sociocultural theory.
Both agreed that children are active constructive beings. Piaget emphasized that child’s independent efforts to make sense of the world. Vygotsky viewed it as a socially mediatd process that relies on more advanced members of society.
Identify Piaget's substages of sensorimotor development, including the adaptive behaviors associated with each substage. Provide an example of how you would apply to your profession.
1. Simple reflexes (birth to 1) various inborn reflexes at the center of babys physical and cognitive life. Interactions with world
2. First habits of primary circular reactions (1-4) infants begin to coordinate what were spate actions into simple activities that babys are interested.
3. Secondary circular reactions (4-8) – infants begin to act upon the outside world.
4. Coordination of secondary circular reactions (8-12) – infants employ goal directed behavior and object permanence emerges
5. Tertiary circular reactions novelty, and curiosity (12-18) – infants appear to carry out miniature experiments to observe the consequences.
6. Internalization of schemes (18-24) – capacity for mental representation or symbolic thought.
Compare the three major theories of language development. Provide an example of how you would apply one of these theories in your profession.
1. Behavioristic theory – asserts that children learn their language through imitation of individuals around them
2. Nativistic theory – argues that language development is determined from within the child rather than by external factors.
3. The cognitive theory – suggest that children are born with certain abilities to acquire language but which disagrees as to the nature of these abilities.
4. By environment and its biological
Describe ways parents and caregivers can soothe a crying baby, and explain how or why each technique works.
5 ways – swaddle, swing, suck, soft sounds, stroke baby.
1. Swaddle – wrapping the baby snugly in a blanket.
2. Swing – lift baby to the shoulder and rock or walk.
3. Suck – sucking on pacifier helps arousal.
4. Soft sounds – peaceful music/rhythmic sounds.
5. Stroke – gentle motions relaxes baby’s muscles.
What are the four stages of attachment and what predictions did Ainsworth make about the behavior of children with secure attachments in the Strange Situation?
1. Pre-Attachment theory
2. Attachment in the making
3. Clear Cut attachment
4. Formation of a reciprocal relationship
5. Reasoned that securely attached infants and toddlers should use the parent as a secure base from which to explore in an unfamiliar playroom. In addition, when the parent leaves, an unfamiliar adult should be less comforting than the parent. The Strange Situation takes the baby through eight short episodes in which brief separations from and reunions with the caregiver occur
Using Thomas and Chess’s model of temperament identify and describe the three categories of children. Do all children fit into one of these categories? Explain.
1. Easy child – quickly establishes regular routines in infancy is generally cheerful, and adapts easily to new experiences.
2. Difficult Child – is irregular in daily routines, is slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely.
3. Slow-to-warm-up Child – is inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environmental stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences.
4. No, 35 Percent of the child did not fit any of these categories. Instead they showed unique blends of temperamental characteristics.
Describe the development of fear, noting the concepts of stranger anxiety and secure base.
Fear raises during the second half of the first year, most common expression of hear is to unfamiliar adults, a response called stranger anxiety. Infants and toddlers are wary of strangers. When an unfamiliar adult picks the up, stranger anxiety is likely. Once wariness develops, infants use the familiar caregiver as secure base, or point from which to explore, wondering the environment and returning emotional support