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26 Cards in this Set

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The Fed state in muscle results in the following flows of metabolites

Glucose is imported into the cell through the Glut 4 transporter.


Glucose is then used for synthesis of ATP and glycogen.


Fatty acids are imported via VLDL and used for synthesis of triacylglycerols (TAG).


Lactate and TAG is exported from the cells.

What would be the main source of blood glucose toward the end of a daily fast?


A. Dietary glucose


B. Liver glycogen


C. Muscle glycogen


D. Gluconeogenesis from lactate


E. Gluconeogenesis from amino acids

B

The Fasted state in adipose tissue results in the following flows of metabolites

Decreased uptake of glucose by the Glut4 transporter.


Decreased fatty acid uptake.


Increased triacylglycerol breakdown leading to increased export of fatty acids and glycerol

The Fasted state in liver tissue results in the following flows of metabolites

Increased uptake of lactate used for gluconeogenesis or oxidation


Increased uptake of glycerol used for gluconeogenesis


Increased uptake of amino acids used for gluconeogenesis or oxidation


Increased uptake of fatty acids used for oxidation


Increased export of glucose by the Glut2 transporter.

The Fed state in liver results in the following flows of metabolites

Increased uptake of lactate used for gluconeogenesis or oxidation


Increased uptake of glycerol used for gluconeogenesis


Increased uptake of amino acids used for gluconeogenesis or oxidation


Increased uptake of fatty acids used for oxidation


Increased export of glucose by the Glut2 transporter.

The Fed state in apipose results in the following flows of metabolites

Increased uptake of glucose by the Glut4 transporter


Increased fatty acid uptake from VLDL and chylomicrons


Increased synthesis of fatty acids and triacylglycerol

Which of the following options best describes the energy source(s) for skeletal muscle.


A. fatty acids


B. ketone bodies


C. glucose


D. A & BE.


B & C


F. A, B, & C

F

Which of the following statements is true?


A. The brain prefers glucose as an energy source, but can use ketone bodies.


B. Muscle cannot use fatty acids as an energy source.


C. In a well-fed human, about equal amounts of energy are stored as glycogen and as triacylglycerol.


D. Fatty acids cannot be used as an energy source in humans because humans lack the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle.

A

Which of the following statements is most true during a fed state?


A. Increased insulin and no glucagon secretion by the pancreas


B. Increased insulin and decreased glucagon secretion by the pancreas


C. Increased glucagon secretion and no insulin secretion by the pancreas


D. No glucagon and no insulin secretion by the pancreas


E. Increased glucagon and decreased insulin secretion by the pancreas

B

Which of the following tissues are involved in storing energy in the fed state?


A. Liver, muscle, adipose tissue, brain, red blood cells.


B. Liver, muscle, adipose tissue, kidney cortex, red blood cells.


C. Liver, muscle, adipose tissue, brain, kidney cortex.


D. Liver, muscle, adipose tissue, kidney cortex.


E. Muscle, adipose tissue, kidney cortex, brain, red blood cells.

D

Long-term maintenance of body weight is regulated by the hormone:


A. testosterone.


B. hypothalmin.


C. adiposin.


D. leptin.


E. obesin.

Leptin

The principal metabolite used to initiate glycogen synthesis and first released from glycogen degradation is...

glucose-1-phosphate

How long does the fed state usually last?


A. up to 8 hours after a meal


B. up to 3 hours after a meal


C. up to 6 hours after a meal


D. up to 0.5 hours after a meal


E. up to 10 hours after a meal

B

Glycogen synthesis involves


A.glycogen self catalysing the synthesis of the initial three monomers of glycogen followed by further elongation of the polymer by glycogenin synthase and branching enzyme


B.glycogen synthase self catalysing the synthesis of the initial three monomers of glycogen followed by further elongation of the polymer by glycogenin and branching enzyme


C.glycogenin self catalysing the synthesis of the initial three monomers of glycogen followed by further elongation of the polymer by glycogen phosphorylase and branching enzyme


D.glycogenin self catalysing the synthesis of the initial three monomers of glycogen followed by further elongation of the polymer by glycogen synthase and branching enzyme


E.glucagon self catalysing the synthesis of the initial three monomers of glucagon followed by further elongation of the polymer by glucagon synthase and branching enzyme

D

In the fasting state, which of the following statements is true?




A. Muscle and adipose tissue glucose uptake is inhibited by down-regulation of Glut 2 transporters.


B.Selflessly, liver, muscle and adipose tissue do not utilise ketone bodies as an energy source once stores of glycogen have been depleted, sparing energy for the brain.


C. Only muscle and liver tissue are able to use free fatty acids as an energy source.


D. Brain tissue glucose uptake is largely unaffected by lowered levels of insulin due to the presence of Glut 2 microvesicles.


E. Muscle tissue degredation is minimised by β-oxidation of fatty acids.

E

The enzyme responsible for breaking down VLDL and chylomicrons is:


A. lipoprotein lipase


B. VLDL lipase


C. chylomicron lipase


D. VLDL/chylomicron lipase


E. acyl:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT)

A

The main metabolic pathways involved in the fed state are:


A. glycogen synthesis, glycolysis, beta oxidation, triacylglycerol synthesis, protein synthesis, and the TCA cycle.


B. glycogen synthesis, glycogenolysis, fatty acid synthesis, triacylglycerol synthesis, protein synthesis, and the TCA cycle.


C. glycogen synthesis, glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis, triacylglycerol synthesis, protein synthesis, and the TCA cycle.


D. glycogen synthesis, glycolysis, fatty acid synthesis, triacylglycerol hydrolysis, protein synthesis, and the Cori cycle.


E. glycogen synthesis, glycolysis, beta oxidation, triacylglycerol synthesis, protein synthesis, and the Cori cycle.

C

Statement: The liver converts fatty acids to ketone bodies when carbohydrates are in short supply and exports them to peripheral tissues




Reason: Ketone bodies are more easily metabolised than fatty acids by many tissues.

Statement is True; Reason is True; the reason is a correct explanation of the statement

The largest energy store in a well-nourished human is:

triacylglycerols in adipose tissue.

A woman doesn't eat all day and then at dinner as a glass of red wine, she faints. Why?


A. a person can not go 10 hrs without food


B. alcohol induced fasting hypoglycemia.


C. she drank much more alcohol than she stated


D. she is diabetic


E. all of the above.

B

The activity of the glycolytic pathway is increased by:


A. increase in ATP


B. increase in AMP


C. increase in fructose 2,6 bisphosphate


D. increase in citrate


E. increase in acetyl CoA


F. increase in insulin


G. increase in glucagon


H. fasting


I. fed

B C F and I

Statement: Muscle cells can use their store of glycogen as a source of chemical potential energy during fasting




Reason:The hormone glucagon binds to a cell membrane receptor which activates an intracellular cascade that stimulates the break down of glycogen stores (glycogenolysis)

Statement is True; Reason is True; the reason is an incorrect explanation of the statement

Which of the following statements about metabolism in the mammalian liver is false?


A. The enzymatic complement of liver tissue changes in response to changes in the diet.


B. The presence of glucose 6-phosphatase makes liver uniquely able to release glucose into the bloodstream.


C. Most plasma lipoproteins are synthesized in the liver.


D. The liver synthesizes most of the urea produced in the body.


E. Under certain conditions, most of the functions of the liver can be performed by other organs.

E

What is the defect, and metabolic consequences, in Type 1a glycogen storage disease (also called von Gierke s disease)?


A.defect is glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency which results in increased intracellular concentration of glycogen and leads to fasting hyperglcyeamia


B.defect is glucose-1-phosphatase deficiency which results in increased intracellular concentration of glycogen and leads to fasting hypoglcyeamia


C.defect is glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency which results in decreased intracellular concentration of glycogen and leads to fasting hypoglcyeamia


D.defect is glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency which results in decreased intracellular concentration of glycogen and leads to fasting hyperglcyeamia


E.defect is glucose-6-phosphatase deficiency which results in increased intracellular concentration of glycogen and leads to fasting hypoglcyeamia

E

The activity of the gluconeogenic pathway can be increased by the following:


A. increase in ATP


B. increase in AMP


C. increase in fructose 2,6 bisphosphate


D. increase in citrate


E. increase in acetyl CoA


F. increase in insulin


G. increase in glucagon


H. fasting


I. fed

A D E G H

Extremely hard and prolonged physical work can lead to a pronounced fall in blood sugar. Marathon runners, skiers and others keep well hydrated but press their bodies to maximal performance and sometimes collapse before the finish line. The most likely reason for this collapse is:


A. Insufficient liver gluconeogenesis


B. Exhaustion of glycogen stores


C. Dehydration


D. Loss of electrolytes


E. Increase in adrenalin

A