Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/143

Click to flip

143 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back

What does forensic psychology mean?

'of the courts'

What age are the victims of robbery?

15-24 years old

What are sources to measure the extent of crime?

Police reports, victim surveys, court statistics, prison statistics, offender surveys

What are the limitations of police statistics?

Not all crime is recorded, changes in laws, biases

How are victims surveys useful?

More accurate, identifying the dark figure

What are the limitations of victim surveys?

Memory issues, reluctance to disclose

What is a moral panic?

When the media creates an overreaction to an event where the perceived threat of crime is greater than the actual likelihood

Who is most at risk from crime?

Young adult males

What is the cultivation theory?

The more time spent watching television = higher view of high crime

What is the availability heuristic theory?

When the media makes a crime image accessible in the mind

What is cognitive theory?

The risk and seriousness of the crime is assessed

What is the neuropsychology theory?

People commit crimes due to physiological, anatomical or genetic defects. Inherited genetically, peri/pre-natal or environmental factors

What are the limitations of the neuropsychology theory?

Understanding incomplete, not popular theory and difficult to isolate biological V envrionmental

What is the intelligence theory?

Offending is related to low intelligence

What are the limitations of the intelligence theory?

Not a popular theory, low intelligence not the norm in criminal populations, minor support, many offenders are of high intelligence

What is the rational choice theory?

People weigh up the benefits and costs and choose to commit crime

What are the limitations of the rational choice theory?

Decision making does not appear to be a matter of rational evaluation as the benefits are only assessed

What is the attachment theory?

Children form secure or insecure attachments to their parents. Insecure attachments are associated with deviant behaviours

What is Eysenck's biosocial theory of crime?

Genetic factors contribute to behaviour but influenced by environmental factors. Includes genetics, body types, personality and environmental influences

What are the genetic studies in the biosocial theory of crime?

XYY chromosomes, twin studies

What are Sheldons 3 body types?

Mesomorphs, endomorphs and ectomorphs

Which is the most violent body type?

Mesomorphs

Which body type is most likely to be delinquent?

Endomorphs

What are the three personality types in the biosocial theory of crime?

Extraversion, psychoticism and neuroticism

What is the social learning theory?

Observational learning e.g. Bobo Doll. Includes external, vicarious and self reinforcement

What are the limitations of the social learning thoery?

Simplistic, same event can be experienced differently, can't explain circumstances

What is the social construction of crime?

Crime is not static and varies across countries, time and circumstances

When does most adolescent offending occur?

16-17 years old

What is a life-course persistent offender?

Wide range of offences, start at an early age and persist beyond 20s, small group of offender account for most crime

What is an adolescent-limited offender?

Short criminal career, commit mostly non-violent crimes

What are antecedents to adolescent offending?

Punitive child rearing practices, absence of love, poor supervision, family disruption and deviant parental characteristics

What are individual risk factors?

Low IQ, hyper, risky, history of ASPD

What are individual protective factors?

Social skills, attachment to family, morals and values, good coping style

What are family risk factors?

Poor supervision, harsh or inconsistent discipline, parental conflict, criminal parents or siblings, parental substance abuse

What are family protective factors?

Caring parents, small family size

What are social risk factors?

Poverty, large family size, parental unemployment, low popularity, bullying, poor community

What are social protective factors?

Positive school and peers, school norms

What are neighbourhood risk factors?

Poverty, high crime, socially disorganised

What are neighbourhood protective factors?

Support services, networking, norms against violence, high SE

What are precursors to delinquency?

Low family income, poor housing, large family size, convicted parent, harsh discipline, low intelligence, early school leaving

What are adolescent-limited offenders?

Short criminal career, commit non-violent crimes

What is a youth justice conference?

A meeting between the youth and the people who were affected by the offence committed

Within two years of leaving prison approximately what percentage of young offenders are thought to reoffend?

75%

According to Farrington how many males with a family member who had not been convicted had a conviction themselves?

24%

In Farrington's study what percentage of males had a conviction if their wife did?

83%

In the study by Haapsalo which fighters (children) had the most socially disadvantaged home environments?

High fighters in kindergarten and continued to be in at least 2 subsequent years

According to Welsh what were the estimated economic costs of young US males in the 7 to 17 year range?

Between $90 and $110 million for 500 boys

Which intervention produced the most promising outcomes?

Direct family support and early childhood education

UK Crime Stats suggest that ___ of rapes of woman are carried out by offenders under 18 and ___ of all sexual offences against children?

30%; half

What were the predictors of sexual delinquency found by Langstrom?

Early onset of sexually abusive behaviour, male victims, multiple victims and poor social skills

What is isomorphism hypothesis?

Physically abused children commit physically violent offences and sexually abused children commit sexually violent crimes

What is an adolescent-limited offender?

Reached max offending by 20s then decreased, early offending associated with peers

What is a persistent serious offender?

In prison a lot and recidivates quickly, serious violent crimes, many childhood risk factors

What is a limited serious offender?

Violence escalated in 20s, stopped by 30, intelligence but failed school, suicide common

What are occasional offenders?

Few risk factors, little adolescent involvement in crime, limited repertoire of crimes

What are late-starting offenders?

Limited repertoire of crimes, usually fraud or burglary, professional criminals, rational choice to offend

What percentage of males had a conviction if a relative did?

53%

What is it called when the witness has seen the suspect before but not at the crime scene?

Unconscious transference

What age group is the most likely to fall victim to robbery?

15-24 years old

The British Crime Survey found __ of the male population and __ of the female population committed at least one common offence?

50%; 30%

Monozygotic twins have similar criminality, what might have enhanced this?

Treated similarly by parents

According to 2001 ABS most homicides in Australia occurred in?

Residential premises

The following factors: lack of love, lax supervision and family disruption are found to be correlates of delinquency?

True

It is less likely that __ will operate in the sequential line up?

Relative similarity

According to Biro what proportion of killers appeared to have a normal personality?

28%

According to Walmsley how many prisoners in the UK also had a family member in prison?

33%

Crime is not randomly distributed. It tends to committed fairly close to an offenders home. What type of theory is this?

Community or locality theory

Which theory stresses the relationship between a criminal's general, daily activities and the crimes committed?

Routine activity

There have been attempts to improve the validity of jury research by using?

Shadow juries

___ described the commonest type of rapist?

Power-assurance

What are the patterns associated with rape?

Control, theft, involvement and hostility

What is a power-assurance rapist?

Commonest, insecurities about masculinity, planned event, trophies taken

What is a power-assertive rapist?

Expresses sexuality and power over women, victims often found in clubs/pubs

What is an anger-retaliatory rapist?

High levels of anger towards women, degrading activities

What is an anger-excitement rapist?

Gains pleasure and excitement from distress of victim

What is the socio-cultural theory of rape?

Culture encourages men to rape. E.g. individualist-collectivist, gender inequality and social disorganisation

What are the feminist theories of rape?

Social structure, social status and power, rape motivated by desire for power and dominance

What is the social learning theory of rape?

Learn pro-rape beliefs from social networks, however not all men with pro-rape attitudes actually commit rape

What is the evolutionary theory of rape?

Transmission of one's genetic material, says that rape is partly sexually not only violent

What is expressive violence?

Acts that vent rage, anger or frustration

What is instrumental violence?

Designed to improve the financial or social position of the offender

What is the personal traits theory of violence?

Major neurological impairment such as depression, psychopathy, aggression linked to violence

What is the evolutionary theory of violence?

Violent responses are instinctual

What is the substance abuse theory of violence?

Drugs cause violence, addicts commit crimes to support habits and drug turf wars

What is the socialisation and upbringing theory of violence?

Absent/deviant parents, inconsistent discipline, physical abuse, lack of supervision

What is the exposure to violence theory of violence?

Exposure to violence in environment e.g. media and television. No evidence of causality

What is the cultural theory of violence?

Violence is product of beliefs, values and behaviours that develop in the poorest/disorganised areas

What is first degree murder?

Felony murder, premeditation and deliberation required

What is second degree murder?

Malice aforethough but no premeditation or deliberation

What is manslaughter

Homicide without malice. Voluntary or involuntary

How many murders are committed by someone known to the victim?

80%

Who are women more likely to kill?

Husbands or intimates

What are Fox and Levin's typology of serial killers?

Thrill, mission and expedience killers

What are Fox and Levin's typology of mass murderers?

Revenge, love, profit and terrorist killers

What percentage of women who die from homicide are killed by current or former husband/boyfriend?

Approx 50%

What are the two types of emerging interpersonal violence?

Hate crimes and stalking

Stalking is argued by some as a variant of which type of other violent behaviour?

Domestic violence

On average how long did stalking last for women?

1.8 years on average

Who are the biggest victims and offenders of homicide?

Males

What are the 4 types of applied forensic psychology?

Police, investigative, clinical and prison

What are the 4 types of academic forensic psychology?

Biological, developmental, cognitive and social

How many cases did eyewitness testimony play part in a wrongful conviction?

2/3

What is the reconstructive theory of memory?

Memories can change based on understanding of what happened and new experiences

What is the misinformation effect?

Memories can be unconsciously distorted especially when exposed to new or misleading information e.g. Loftus barn study

What is relative similarity?

When an eyewitness picks the most similar person to the offender from the line-up

What is crime scene profiling?

Uses information from the crime scene to generate a picture of the offender

What is offender profiling?

Collates empirical data in order to collate a picture of the characteristics of those involved in a certain type of crime

What is an incorrect main feature of FBI style profiling?

Little contact with the investigating team and simply providing a profile

Torres found that ___ of psychologists and psychiatrists believed profiling was useful, ___ of the same groups thought it needed empirical research

85% and 95%; but over 97%

Snook said ___ arguments were used in preference to ___ evidence on ___% of occasions?

commonsense; empirical; 58%

Gudjonsson and Copson found what about profilers?

3% of detections were attributed to the profiler's work

Goodwill found what factor was able to predict the offenders age in stranger rapes?

Where there is evidence of both planning and gratuitous violence

What does Investigative psychology focus on?

Quantitative analysis to look at similarities in crime characteristics e.g. geographical profiling

What is the maximisation police interview technique?

Scare tactics employed to intimidate the suspect, overstate seriousness of crime and charges

What is the minimisation police interview technique?

Soft techniques designed to encourage sense of security, offering sympathy, moral justification, seriousness and extent of charges minimised

What is a stress-compliant false confession?

Confess to escape the situation of stressful and endless questioning

What is a coerced-compliant false confession?

Threats or promises to coerce suspect into confessing

What is a persuaded/coerced-internalised false confession?

When they become convinced that they did commit the offence

What is actus reus?

That the defendant committed the illegal act

What is mens rea?

That the defendant committed the act with the requisite intent

How many Australian's will suffer from a mental illness?

1/5, 45% lifetime history

How many criminal cases are tried in a magistrates court and how many are tried in a higher court with the possibility of a trial by jury?

95% and 5% respectively

Scientific jury selection was most accurate for what types of cases?

Drug and court martial cases

In QLD how many jurors are there for criminal and civil trials?

12 and 4 jurors

How many peremptory challenges are there allowed in a trial?

8 challenges

What factors affected jury deliberation?

Weapon recovered, large number of witnesses, statements, previous convictions, unemployment, young victim, less serious crime

What factors do not affect jury deliberation?

Eyewitness, expert testimony, stolen property, victims criminal history and relationship

What is a verdict driven deliberation style?

Reach a verdict as soon as possible. Majority decision juries tend to be verdict driven

What is an evidence driven deliberation style?

Focus on discussion and evaluation before taking a vote, deliberate longer, consider evidence. Unanimous decision juries tend to be evidence driven

What are heuristics?

Expectations about how people are supposed to act

What is a functional assessment?

Based on interviews with the offender to identify acute dynamic risk factors

What is an actuarial assessment?

Explores the statistical relationship between the characteristics of the offender

What is a dynamic risk assessment?

Use risk factors which can change as a result of therapy or the experience of prison

What is the preconditions theory of paedophilia?

Factors such as emotional congruence, sexual arousal are preconditions for offending. Old model with no empirical research

What is the cognitive theory of paedophilia?

Have distorted views, use grooming, have fantasies, justify actions and are manipulative

What is the sexualisation theory of paedophilia?

Sexual abuse leads to sexual offending, isomorphic behaviour, however not all who are abused become offenders

What is the pathways theory of paedophilia?

Factors divert them from a path of normal sexual interest in adults, can be genetics or environmental

What body type has the personality traits of relaxed, sociable and tolerant?

Endomorphs

What body type has the personality traits of non sociable, sensitive to pain, over-reactive and like privacy?

Ectomorphs

What body type has the personality traits of being assertive, adventurous, risk-taking, craving power and dominance?

Mesomorphs

What personality type is assertive, creative, carefree, lively and dominant?

Extraversion

What personality type is aggressive, cold, creative, egocentric, impersonal, impulsive, antisocial and lacks empathy?

Psychoticism

What personality type is depressed, emotional, irrational, moody, tense, anxious, shy and has low self-esteem?

Neuroticism